Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer.
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. (+info)
Treatment of lysosomal storage disease in MPS VII mice using a recombinant adeno-associated virus.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). We used a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-GUS) to deliver GUS cDNA to MPS VII mice. The route of vector administration had a dramatic effect on the extent and distribution of GUS activity. Intramuscular injection of AAV-GUS resulted in high, localized production of GUS, while intravenous administration produced low GUS activity in several tissues. This latter treatment of MPS VII mice reduced glycosaminoglycan levels in the liver to normal and reduced storage granules dramatically. We show that a single administration of AAV-GUS can provide sustained expression of GUS in a variety of cell types and is sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype at least in the liver. (+info)
Neonatal gene transfer leads to widespread correction of pathology in a murine model of lysosomal storage disease.
For many inborn errors of metabolism, early treatment is critical to prevent long-term developmental sequelae. We have used a gene-therapy approach to demonstrate this concept in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). Newborn MPS VII mice received a single intravenous injection with 5.4 x 10(6) infectious units of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the human beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) cDNA. Therapeutic levels of GUSB expression were achieved by 1 week of age in liver, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, and retina. GUSB expression persisted in most organs for the 16-week duration of the study at levels sufficient to either reduce or prevent completely lysosomal storage. Of particular significance, neurons, microglia, and meninges of the central nervous system were virtually cleared of disease. In addition, neonatal treatment of MPS VII mice provided access to the central nervous system via an intravenous route, avoiding a more invasive procedure later in life. These data suggest that gene transfer mediated by adeno-associated virus can achieve therapeutically relevant levels of enzyme very early in life and that the rapid growth and differentiation of tissues does not limit long-term expression. (+info)
Transduction of primitive human marrow and cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells with adeno-associated virus vectors.
We evaluated the capacity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to transduce primitive human myeloid progenitor cells derived from marrow and cord blood in long-term cultures and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays. Single-colony analyses showed that AAV vectors transduced CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) clonogenic cells in long-term culture. Gene transfer was readily observed in LTC-ICs derived from 5-, 8-, and 10-week cultures. Recombinant AAV (rAAV) transduction was observed in every donor analyzed, although a wide range of gene transfer frequencies (5% to 100%) was noted. AAV transduction of LTC-ICs was stable, with week-8 and -10 LTC-ICs showing comparable or better transduction relative to week-5 LTC-ICs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses performed to determine the fate of AAV vectors in transduced cells showed that 9% to 28% of CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) cells showed stable vector integration as evidenced by chromosome-associated signals in metaphase spreads. Comparisons of interphase and metaphase FISH suggested that a fraction of cells also contained episomal vector at early time points after transduction. Despite the apparent loss of the episomal forms with continued culture, the number of metaphases containing integrated vector genomes remained stable long term. Transgene transcription and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) expression was observed in CD34(+), CD34(+)38(-) LTC-ICs in the absence of selective pressure. These results suggest that primitive myeloid progenitors are amenable to genetic modification with AAV vectors. (+info)
Charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis of the N-terminal half of adeno-associated virus type 2 Rep78 protein.
The adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep78 and Rep68 proteins are required for site-specific integration of the AAV genome into the AAVS1 locus (19q13.3-qter) as well as for viral DNA replication. Rep78 and Rep68 bind to the GAGC motif on the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) and cut at the trs (terminal resolution site). A similar reaction is believed to occur in AAVS1 harboring an analogous GAGC motif and a trs homolog, followed by integration of the AAV genome. To elucidate the functional domains of Rep proteins at the amino acid level, we performed charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis of the N terminus (residues 1 to 240) of Rep78, where DNA binding and nicking domains are thought to exist. Mutants were analyzed for their abilities to bind the GAGC motif, nick at the trs homolog, and integrate an ITR-containing plasmid into AAVS1 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, trs endonuclease assay, and PCR-based integration assay. We identified the residues responsible for DNA binding: R107A, K136A, and R138A mutations completely abolished the binding activity. The H90A or H92A mutant, carrying a mutation in a putative metal binding site, lost nicking activity while retaining binding activity. Mutations affecting DNA binding or trs nicking also impaired the site-specific integration, except for E66A and E239A. These results provide important information on the structure-function relationship of Rep proteins. We also describe an aberrant nicking of Rep78. We found that Rep78 cuts predominantly at the trs homolog not only between the T residues (GGT/TGG), but also between the G and T residues (GG/TTGG), which may be influenced by the sequence surrounding the GAGC motif. (+info)
Comparative characterization of rep proteins from the helper-dependent adeno-associated virus type 2 and the autonomous goose parvovirus.
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are nonautonomous human parvoviruses in that they are dependent on helper functions supplied by other viruses or on genotoxic stimuli for conditions permissive for replication. In the absence of helper, AAV type 2 enters latency by integration into a specific site on human chromosome 19. This feature of AAV, in combination with a lack of pathogenicity, makes AAV an attractive candidate vector for human gene therapy. Goose parvovirus (GPV) is both autonomous and pathogenic yet is highly homologous to AAV. To address the molecular bases for the different viral lifestyles, we compare the AAV and GPV nonstructural proteins, Rep78 and Rep1, respectively. We find that Rep78 and Rep1 possess several biochemical activities in common, including (i) high-affinity DNA binding for sequences that constitute the minimal DNA replication origin; (ii) nucleoside triphosphate-dependent DNA helicase activity; and (iii) origin-specific replication of double-stranded linear DNA. These experiments also establish a specific 38-bp DNA sequence as the minimal GPV DNA replication origin. It is noteworthy that although the proposed Rep binding sites of GPV and AAV are highly similar, Rep1 and Rep78 show a high degree of specificity for their respective origins, in both binding and replication assays. One significant difference was observed; with the minimal replication origin in adenovirus-uninfected extracts, Rep78-mediated replication exhibited low processivity, as previously reported. In contrast, Rep1 efficiently replicated full-length template. Overall, our studies indicate that GPV Rep1 and AAV Rep78 support a comparable mode of replication. Thus, a comparison of the two proteins provides a model system with which to determine the contribution of Rep in the regulation of dependence and autonomy at the level of DNA replication. (+info)
Disease-inducible transgene expression from a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector in a rat arthritis model.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting 1% of the world's population, with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector for its potential application in RA gene therapy. rAAV encoding Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was injected into rat joints which had already been induced into acute arthritis after local lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and the efficiency of in vivo transduction was evaluated. We observed a striking correlation between vector transgene expression and disease severity in arthritic joints. The inflammatory reaction peaked at 3 to 7 days after LPS treatment, and, at the same time, 95% of the synoviocytes had high-level transgene expression. Gene expression diminished to the basal level (5%) when the inflammation subsided at 30 days after LPS treatment. More importantly, the diminished transgene expression could be efficiently reactivated by a repeated insult. The transgene expression in normal joints transduced with rAAV remained low for a long period of time (30 days) but could still be induced to high levels (95%) at 3 to 7 days after LPS treatment. This is the first demonstration of disease state-regulated transgene expression. These findings strongly support the feasibility of therapeutic as well as preventative gene transfer approaches for RA with rAAV vectors containing therapeutic genes, which are expected to respond primarily to the disease state of the target tissue. (+info)
Site-specific integration mediated by a hybrid adenovirus/adeno-associated virus vector.
Adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) have attractive and complementary properties that can be exploited for gene transfer purposes. Ad vectors are probably the most efficient vehicles to deliver foreign genes both in vitro and in vivo. AAV exhibits the unique ability to establish latency by efficiently integrating at a specific locus of human chromosome 19 (AAVS1). Two viral elements are necessary for the integration at AAVS1: Rep68/78 and the inverted terminal repeats (AAV-ITRs). In this study, we report the development of two helper-dependent adenoviral (HD) vectors, one carrying the Rep78 gene, the other an AAV-ITR-flanked transgene. Although Rep proteins have been demonstrated to interfere with Ad replication, HD Rep78 vector was successfully amplified on serial passages in 293CRE4 cells with a yield of 50-100 transducing units per cell. DNA integration at the AAVS1 site also was demonstrated in hepatoma cells coinfected with the HD-expressing Rep78 and with the second HD vector carrying a transgene flanked by AAV-ITRs. The high transduction efficiency, large cloning capacity, and high titer of the HD, combined with the site-specific integration machinery provided by AAV-derived components, make the Ad/AAV hybrid viruses a promising vehicle for gene therapy. (+info)