(1/391) In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts.
We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene. (+info)
(2/391) A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration.
2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing. (+info)
(3/391) 5-(1-propargylamino)-2'-deoxyuridine (UP): a novel thymidine analogue for generating DNA triplexes with increased stability.
We have used quantitative DNase I footprinting and UV-melting studies to examine the formation of DNA triplexes in which the third strand thymines have been replaced by 5-propargylamino-dU (UP). The intra-molecular triplex A6-L-T6-L-(UP)5T (L = two octanediol residues) shows a single UV-melting transition which is >20 degrees higher than that of the parent triplex A6-L-T6-L-T6at pH 5.5. Although a single transition is observed at all pHs, the melting temperature (Tm) of the modified oligonucleotide decreases at higher pHs, consistent with the requirement for protonation of the amino group. A similar intramolecular triplex with a longer overhanging duplex shows two melting transitions, the lower of which is stabilised by substitution of T by UP, in a pH dependent fashion. Triplex stability increases by approximately 12 K for each T to UP substitution. Quantitative footprinting studies have examined the interaction of three UP-containing 9mer oligonucleotides with the different portions of the 17mer sequence 5'-AGGAAGAGAAAAAAGAA. At pH 5.0, the UP-containing oligo-nucleotides footprint to much lower concentrations than their T-containing counterparts. In particular (UP)6CUPT binds approximately 1000-fold more tightly than the unmodified oligonucleotide T6CTT. Oligonucleotides containing fewer UP residues are stabilised to a lesser extent. The affinity of these modified third strands decreases at higher pHs. These results demonstrate that the stability of DNA triplexes can be dramatically increased by using positively charged analogues of thymine. (+info)
(4/391) The observation of transplanted embryonic motoneurons in the denervated muscles of adult rats.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the survival of embryonic motoneurons after they were transplanted into the denervated skeletal muscles and to find a new method to retard the atrophy of denervated muscles. METHODS: Dissociated embryonic motoneurons prelabled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (Brdur) on the embryonic days 12 were injected into the denervated gastrocnemius muscles of adult rats. Then gastrocnemius muscles were processed with Nissl staining, acetylcholinesterase staining and Brdur immunocytochemical staining to show the implanted motoneurons at 9 and 22 weeks post-transplantation. Myofibrillar ATPase staining was used to show the morphology of muscle fibers. The rats in experimental group were implanted with embryonic motoneurons in the predenervation muscles, while the rats in control group were injected with just culture medium without motoneurons. RESULTS: Embryonic motoneurons survived, developed and extended long axons to form neuromuscular junctions with the denervated muscles. The differentiation of muscle fibers and fiber type grouping occurred among bigger fibers in experimental group. The transverse area was smaller and there was no apparent fiber type grouping in control group. CONCLUSIONS: Embryonic motoneurons can survive, develop and reinnervate denervated muscles after being transplanted into denervated muscles. It is worth further investigating on ameliorating the atrophy of denervated muscle. (+info)
(5/391) Dipeptidyl peptidase I is required for the processing and activation of granzymes A and B in vivo.
Dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that has been implicated in the processing of granzymes, which are neutral serine proteases exclusively expressed in the granules of activated cytotoxic lymphocytes. In this report, we show that cytotoxic lymphocytes derived from DPPI-/- mice contain normal amounts of granzymes A and B, but these molecules retain their prodipeptide domains and are inactive. Cytotoxic assays with DPPI-/- effector cells reveal severe defects in the induction of target cell apoptosis (as measured by [(125)I]UdR release) at both early and late time points; this defect is comparable to that detected in perforin-/- or granzyme A-/- x B-/- cytotoxic lymphocytes. DPPI therefore plays an essential role in the in vivo processing and activation of granzymes A and B, which are required for cytotoxic lymphocyte granule-mediated apoptosis. (+info)
(6/391) A facile synthesis of 5-(perfluoroalkyl)-pyrimidines.
In the paper a synthetic two stage procedure is described for the preparation of perfluoroalkylated derivatives of uracil and its nucleosides. Using copper bronze a perfluoroalkyl-copper-complex is formed from perfluoralkyl iodides in polar aprotic solvents, such as DMSO, and under inert conditions. The reaction of this complex with uracil, uridine and 2-deoxyuridine leads to the corresponding 5-substituted perfluoralkyl derivatives. It is shown by mass spectra that the substitution always takes place at the 5-position of the pyrimidine. The chemical and physical properties of the formed compounds are described. (+info)
(7/391) The mechanism of action of methotrexate in cultured L5178Y leukemia cells.
This study investigates the relationships between the methotrexate (MTX)-induced purineless state and thymineless state and between the thymineless state and the kill of L5178Y cells. As an index of the thymineless state, we measured the effect of MTX on conversion of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate. This was measured as the rate of incorporation of tritiated deoxyuridine into DNA, but it was corrected for changes in incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Thus we derived the "calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate." During the MTX treatment, the calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate decreased rapidly at first and then more slowly. The slow 2nd-phase block was not reversed by hypoxanthine. As the 2nd-phase block deepened, the lymphoblasts continued to die (loss of cloning ability) but recovered the ability to incorporate tritiated thymidine into DNA. After 7 hr of MTX treatment, the kinetics of the 2nd-phase block in calculated tritiated deoxyuridine rate correlated closely with the kinetics of cell kill. Thus, MTX may inhibit dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, rapidly deplete S-phase L5178Y of reduced folates, and thus produce a purineless and thymineless state. As treatment continues, MTX intensifies the thymineless state, possibly by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthetase enzyme, and the cells die predominantly a thymineless death. The purineless state initially contributes to cell kill but later does not, possibly because it partially reverses spontaneously. (+info)
(8/391) Balb/c mice as a preclinical model for raltitrexed-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.
Raltitrexed (RTX) is an antifolate thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. RTX induces proliferating tissue toxicities that are largely confined to the intestine, with diarrhea being a severe side effect in a small but significant minority of patients. Similarly, weight loss and diarrhea were observed in BALB/c mice, and a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined as approximately 5-10 mg/kg/day x 5 days. At an equivalent dose of 10 mg/kg/day x 5 days (dl-5), DBA2 mice lost considerably less weight, leading to a higher MTD (>500 mg/kg/day x 5 days), and there was no evidence of diarrhea. Histopathological consequences of damage, such as changes in small intestinal crypt architecture and villus atrophy induced by the 10-mg/kg/day dose, were greater and of longer duration in BALB/c mice. A higher dose of RTX (100 mg/kg/day x 5) induced weight loss and histopathological damage similar to that seen in BALB/c mice (10 mg/kg/ day x 5) but was of later onset, nadir, and recovery. Small changes to the colon were only observed in BALB/c mice. Pretreatment levels of plasma thymidine, deoxyuridine (approximately 1 microM), and folate (approximately40 ng/ml) were similar in both mouse strains. A single injection of radiolabeled RTX (5 mg/kg/ day) did not lead to any marked difference 24 h later in the total drug concentration and distribution of polyglutamates (comprising 70-80% of drug extracted) in the liver, kidney, and intestinal epithelium (large and small intestine) between the two mouse strains. Further studies used a RIA to measure RTX polyglutamate formation in tissues at various times and drug doses. This led to the conclusion that, although there was a higher accumulation of RTX in BALB/c small intestinal epithelium (days 4-6), it may be an effect secondary to another undetermined cause of increased drug sensitivity. This model represents a vehicle by which the etiology and treatment of severe clinical toxicity induced by RTX may be evaluated. (+info)