Telomeric repeats on small polydisperse circular DNA (spcDNA) and genomic instability.
Small polydisperse circular DNA (spcDNA) is a heterogeneous population of extrachromosomal circular molecules present in a large variety of eukaryotic cells. Elevated amounts of total spcDNA are related to endogenous and induced genomic instability in rodent and human cells. We suggested spcDNA as a novel marker for genomic instability, and speculated that spcDNA might serve as a mutator. In this study, we examine the presence of telomeric sequences on spcDNA. We report for the first time the appearance of telomeric repeats in spcDNA molecules (tel-spcDNA) in rodent and human cells. Restriction enzyme analysis indicates that tel-spcDNA molecules harbor mostly, if not exclusively, telomeric repeats. In rodent cells, tel-spcDNA levels are higher in transformed than in normal cells and are enhanced by treatment with carcinogen. Tel-spcDNA is also detected in some human tumors and cell lines, but not in others. We suggest, that its levels in human cells may be primarily related to the amount of the chromosomal telomeric sequences. Tel-spcDNA may serve as a unique mutator, through specific mechanisms related to the telomeric repeats, which distinguish it from the total heterogeneous spcDNA population. It may affect telomere dynamics and genomic instability by clastogenic events, alterations of telomere size and sequestration of telomeric proteins. (+info)
A 43-nucleotide RNA cis-acting element governs the site-specific formation of the 3' end of a poxvirus late mRNA.
The 3' ends of late mRNAs of the ati gene, encoding the major component of the A-type inclusions, are generated by endoribonucleolytic cleavage at a specific site in the primary transcript [Antczak et al., (1992), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 12033-12037]. In this study, sequence analysis of cDNAs of the 3' ends of ati mRNAs showed these mRNAs are 3' polyadenylated at the RNA cleavage site. This suggests that ati mRNA 3' end formation involves cleavage of a late transcript, with subsequent 3' polyadenylation of the 5' cleavage product. The RNA cis-acting element, the AX element, directing orientation-dependent formation of these mRNA 3' ends, was mapped to a 345-bp AluI-XbaI fragment. Deletion analyses of this fragment showed that the boundaries of the AX element are within -5 and +38 of the RNA cleavage site. Scanning mutagenesis showed that the AX element contains at least two subelements: subelement I, 5'-UUUAU downward arrowCCGAUAAUUC-3', containing the cleavage site ( downward arrow), separated from the downstream subelement II, 5'-AAUUUCGGAUUUGAAUGC-3', by a 10-nucleotide region, whose composition may be altered without effect on RNA 3' end formation. These features, which differ from those of other elements controlling RNA processing, suggest that the AX element is a component of a novel mechanism of RNA 3' end formation. (+info)
A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis.
Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group. (+info)
X-chromosome inactivation patterns do not implicate asymmetric splitting of the inner cell mass in the aetiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome.
The aetiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that monochorionic (MC) pregnancies with TTTS are associated with differences in the timing and symmetry of twinning compared to MC twin pregnancies without TTTS. DNA was extracted from the umbilical cord vessels of 26 female MC twins, 14 with and 12 without TTTS on serial antenatal ultrasound. X-inactivation patterns were determined by DNA digestion with Hhal and Hpall followed by polymerase chain reaction for a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene. Products were quantified by densitometry and results compared to those in peripheral blood samples of adult female controls. The median degree of non-random inactivation was similar in MC twins with TTTS, in MC twins without TTTS, and in adult controls. The percentage of individuals with skewed (> or =30/70%) inactivation patterns was no different in MC twins with TTTS compared to those without TTTS, and was similar to adult controls using either enzyme technique. In conclusion we found no difference in the degree or frequency of non-random X-inactivation patterns in TTTS. X-inactivation patterns do not appear to be a useful tool for studying the symmetry of inner cell mass splitting in monochorionic twins. (+info)
Comparison of large restriction fragments of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with those of isolates from potable water.
We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) pattern analyses were done with AseI. The LRF patterns of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from potable water in three homes, two commercial buildings, one reservoir, and eight hospitals had varying degrees of relatedness to 19 clinical isolates recovered from 17 patients. The high number of M. avium isolates recovered from hospital water and their close relationship with clinical isolates suggests the potential threat of nosocomial spread. This study supports the possibility that potable water is a source for the acquisition of M. avium infections. (+info)
Requirement of ATM in phosphorylation of the human p53 protein at serine 15 following DNA double-strand breaks.
Microinjection of the restriction endonuclease HaeIII, which causes DNA double-strand breaks with blunt ends, induces nuclear accumulation of p53 protein in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primary fibroblasts. In contrast, this induction of p53 accumulation is not observed in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) fibroblasts. HaeIII-induced p53 protein in normal fibroblasts is phosphorylated at serine 15, as determined by immunostaining with an antibody specific for phosphorylated serine 15 of p53. This phosphorylation correlates well with p53 accumulation. Treatment with lactacystin (an inhibitor of the proteasome) or heat shock leads to similar levels of p53 accumulation in normal and AT fibroblasts, but the p53 protein lacks a phosphorylated serine 15. Following microinjection of HaeIII into lactacystin-treated normal fibroblasts, lactacystin-induced p53 protein is phosphorylated at serine 15 and stabilized even in the presence of cycloheximide. However, neither stabilization nor phosphorylation at serine 15 is observed in AT fibroblasts under the same conditions. These results indicate the significance of serine 15 phosphorylation for p53 stabilization after DNA double-strand breaks and an absolute requirement for ATM in this phosphorylation process. (+info)
Isolation of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates that efficiently adhere to human bladder carcinoma T24 cells and inhibition of adhesion by fibronectin and trypsin treatment.
The adherence of Enterococcus faecalis strains to human T24 cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Five highly adhesive strains were identified from 30 strains isolated from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections. No efficiently adhesive strains were found among the 30 strains isolated from the feces of healthy students. The five isolated strains also adhered efficiently to human bladder epithelial cells. Analysis of restriction endonuclease-digested plasmid DNAs and chromosome DNAs showed that the five strains were different strains isolated from different patients. The adhesiveness of these strains was inhibited by treatment with fibronectin or trypsin, implying that a specific protein (adhesin) on the bacterial cell surface mediates adherence to fibronectin on the host cell surfaces, and the adhesin differs from the reported adhesins. (+info)
A new CYP2A6 gene deletion responsible for the in vivo polymorphic metabolism of (+)-cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(3-pyridyl)thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride in humans.
(+)-Cis-3,5-dimethyl-2-(3-pyridyl)thiazolidin-4-one hydrochloride (SM-12502) is a newly developed drug as a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist. The disposition of SM-12502 was investigated in plasma from 28 healthy Japanese volunteers after a single i.v. administration of SM-12502. Three of 28 subjects were phenotyped as poor metabolizers (PMs). Genomic DNAs from three extensive metabolizers or three PMs of SM-12502 were analyzed by Southern blot analysis with CYP2A6 cDNA as a probe. DNAs from three PMs digested with SacI and SphI showed novel restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs); one type without 4.5- and 2.6-kb fragments and a weak density of a 6.4-kb fragment (E-type), and the other type without 7.1- and 5.5-kb restriction fragments (C'-type) as compared with three extensive metabolizers, respectively. The deletional restriction fragments specific to three PMs in SacI- and SphI-RFLPs were identified as CYP2A6. Using polymerase chain reaction-RFLP analyses of the gene from the three PMs, we found that the exon 1, exon 8, and exon 9 in CYP2A6 were absent. A new RFLP characterized by SacI and SphI was found to be due to the entire gene deletion of the three exons and was associated with the decreased metabolism of SM-12502. This study demonstrates a new deletional allele in the human CYP2A6 gene responsible for the poor metabolic phenotype of SM-12502. (+info)