(1/3434) [3H]gemcitabine uptake by nucleoside transporters in a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line.
Cellular uptake of many chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs is dependent on the activity of a family of nucleoside transport proteins located in the cell plasma membrane. In the present study, we examined the role of these transporters in the accumulation of gemcitabine by a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line. The uptake of [3H]gemcitibine was compared with that of [3H]uridine and [3H]formycin B in the parent cell line (HN-5a) and in a gemcitabine-resistant variant (GEM-8e). The HN-5a and GEM-8e cells were similar in their transport characteristics and expressed predominantly the es (equilibrative, inhibitor-sensitive) transporter subtype; less than 10% of the influx of [3H]formycin B or [3H]uridine was mediated by the ei (equilibrative inhibitor-resistant) system, and there was no evidence for Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters. [3H]Gemcitabine (10 microM) entered these cells via both the es and ei transporters with an initial rate of uptake similar to that seen with the use of [3H]formycin B or [3H]uridine. In addition, ATP-replete cells accumulated significantly less [3H]gemcitabine than did ATP-depleted cells, which is indicative of an active efflux mechanism for gemcitabine. These results show that gemcitabine is a substrate for both the es and ei nucleoside transporters of HN-5a and GEM-8e cells and that gemcitabine resistance of the GEM-8e cells cannot be attributed to changes in transporter activity. Further studies to define the characteristics of the putative efflux mechanism are clearly warranted because this system has the potential to significantly affect the clinical efficacy of gemcitabine. (+info)
(2/3434) Increased sensitivity of hydroxyurea-resistant leukemic cells to gemcitabine.
Tumor cell resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents may result in cross-resistance to related antineoplastic agents. To study cross-resistance among inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase, we developed hydroxyurea-resistant (HU-R) CCRF-CEM cells. These cells were 6-fold more resistant to hydroxyurea than the parent hydroxyurea-sensitive (HU-S) cell line and displayed an increase in the mRNA and protein of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. We examined whether HU-R cells were cross-resistant to gemcitabine, a drug that blocks cell proliferation by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase and incorporating itself into DNA. Contrary to our expectation, HU-R cells had an increased sensitivity to gemcitabine. The IC50 of gemcitabine was 0.061 +/- 0.03 microM for HU-R cells versus 0.16 +/- 0.02 microM for HU-S cells (P = 0.005). The cellular uptake of [3H]gemcitabine and its incorporation into DNA were increased in HU-R cells. Over an 18-h incubation with radiolabeled gemcitabine (0.25 microM), gemcitabine uptake was 286 +/- 37.3 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-R cells and 128 +/- 8.8 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-S cells (P = 0.03). The incorporation of gemcitabine into DNA was 75 +/- 6.7 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-R cells versus 22 +/- 0.6 fmol/10(6) cells for HU-S cells (P < 0.02). Our studies suggest that the increased sensitivity of HU-R cells to gemcitabine results from increased drug uptake by these cells. This, in turn, favors the incorporation of gemcitabine into DNA, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity. The increased sensitivity of malignant cells to gemcitabine after the development of hydroxyurea resistance may be relevant to the design of chemotherapeutic trials with these drugs. (+info)
(3/3434) Detection and identification of minor nucleotides in intact deoxyribonucleic acids by mass spectrometry.
A mass spectral method is described for the detection and identification of unusual nucleotide residues present in DNAs. Analysis by this method of intact, underivatized DNA from salmon sperm, calf thymus, mouse L-cells, wheat germ, M. lysodeikticus, E. Coli, and the bacteriophages 0X-174, fd, and lamda, yields diagnostic ions for the four common components of DNA as well as characteristic ions for 5-methyldeoxycytidine residues. The spectrum from T2 DNA contains ions indicative of 5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidine and 5-methyldoxycytidine components but no ions corresponding to deoxycytidine residues. The DNAs of phages fd and 0X-174 also display ion products indicative of N6-methyldeoxyadenosine residues. Additional series of ions in the spectra of all four bacteriophage DNAs suggest the presence of 5-substituted deoxyuridine residues. The detection method exhibits considerable sensitivity in that amounts of DNA as low as 0.01 A260nm units can be used in the analysis, and thus, the procedure should prove of some value in the detection and location of modified components in specific regions of the various genomes by analysis of the appropriate endonuclease restriction fragments. (+info)
(4/3434) Comparison of the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2- fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine, 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine, and 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine in CEM cells.
In an effort to understand biochemical features that are important to the selective antitumor activity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo], we evaluated the biochemical pharmacology of three structurally similar compounds that have quite different antitumor activities. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CEM cell growth than were either 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo] or 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo]. The compounds were similar as substrates of deoxycytidine kinase. Similar amounts of their respective triphosphates accumulated in CEM cells, and the rate of disappearance of these metabolites was also similar. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 10- to 30-fold more potent in its ability to inhibit the incorporation of cytidine into deoxycytidine nucleotides than either Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo or Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo, respectively, which indicated that ribonucleotide reductase was differentially inhibited by these three compounds. Thus, the differences in the cytotoxicity of these agents toward CEM cells were not related to quantitative differences in the phosphorylation of these agents to active forms but can mostly be accounted for by differences in the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis by Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo and Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo at concentrations similar to those required for the inhibition of DNA synthesis can help explain the poor antitumor selectivity of these two agents because all cells require RNA and protein synthesis. (+info)
(5/3434) Phase II study of gemcitabine and vindesine in patients with previously untreated non-resectable non-small-cell lung cancer.
Because both vindesine and gemcitabine are active drugs in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with different modes of action and only partly overlapping toxicity, a phase II study was performed. Gemcitabine 1000 mg m(-2) was given on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks, while vindesine 3 mg m(-2) was administered weekly for 7 weeks, then every 2 weeks. A total of 42 patients with nonresectable NSCLC were included. The median age of patients was 56 years; 57% were men, 52% had adenocarcinoma, 31% squamous cell carcinoma and 17% had large-cell carcinoma. The performance status ranged from 0 to 2 with 83% in performance status 1. The majority (55%) had stage IV disease, while 40% had stage III B and 5% stage III A disease. WHO grade 3-4 leucopenia occurred in five patients (12%) and 9% had grade 4 neutropenia. Thrombocytopenia grade 3-4 was observed in six patients (15%). There were no septic death or bleeding episodes. One patient had a transient WHO grade 4 increase in bilirubin, and four patients had a decrease in glomerular filtration rate below the normal limit; one of these patients developed a non-reversible renal insufficiency. Ten patients (24%) complained of dyspnoea of uncertain mechanism, possibly involving bronchoconstriction. There were one complete and seven partial responses among 40 assessable patients (20%, 95% confidence limits 9-36%). Median response duration was 31 weeks (range 11-83 weeks) and median survival time 31 weeks (range 2-171 weeks). The current combination of gemcitabine and vindesine does not appear to be promising for further examination because of the toxicity and somewhat disappointing activity. (+info)
(6/3434) Front-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with docetaxel and gemcitabine: a multicenter phase II trial.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one chemotherapy-naive patients with NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine 900 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8 and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously on day 8 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (150 microg/m2, subcutaneously) support from day 9 to day 15. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 64 years. The World Health Organization performance status was 0 to 1 in 39 patients and 2 in 12 patients. Fifteen patients (29%) had stage IIIB disease, and 36 (71%) had stage IV; histology was mainly squamous cell carcinoma (59%). A partial response was achieved in 19 patients (37.5%; 95% confidence interval, 24% to 50%); stable disease and progressive disease were each observed in 16 patients (31.4%). The median duration of response and the time to tumor progression were 5 and 6 months, respectively. The median survival was 13 months, and the actuarial 1-year survival was 50.7%. Grade 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia were rare (2%). Four patients (8%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, and all were complicated with fever; there was no treatment-related death. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea occurred in three patients (6%), grade 2 or 3 neurotoxicity in four patients (8%), grade 2 or 3 asthenia in 10 patients (20%), and grade 2 or 3 edema in 10 patients (20%). CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel/gemcitabine is well tolerated, can be used for outpatients, and is active for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. This treatment merits further comparison with other cisplatin- or carboplatin-based combinations. (+info)
(7/3434) Phase I-II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin in stage IIIB-IV non-small-cell lung cancer.
PURPOSE: Platinum-based chemotherapy currently represents standard treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Gemcitabine is one of the most interesting agents currently in use in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, and high response rates have been reported when it is administered in combination with cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin in a phase I-II study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IIIB-IV non-small-cell lung cancer received carboplatin at area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 5 mg/mL/min and gemcitabine at an initial dose of 800 mg/m2, subsequently escalated by 100 mg/m2 per step. Gemcitabine was administered on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin on day 8 of the 28-day cycle. Dose escalation proceeded up to dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), which was defined as grade 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity. RESULTS: Neutropenia was DLT, inasmuch as it occurred in three of five patients receiving gemcitabine 1,200 mg/m2. Nonhematologic toxicities were mild. Gemcitabine 1,100 mg/m2 plus carboplatin AUC 5 was recommended for phase II studies. An objective response was observed in 13 (50%) of 26 patients, including four complete responses (15%) and nine partial responses (35%). Median duration of response was 13 months (range, 3 to 23 months). Median overall survival was 16 months (range, 3 to 26 months). CONCLUSION: The combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin is well tolerated and active. Neutropenia was DLT. The observed activity matches that observable in cisplatin-gemcitabine studies, whereas duration of response and survival are even higher. A phase II trial is under way. (+info)
(8/3434) Chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer: it may no longer be ignored.
Two case histories are reported here in which a chemotherapeutic approach improved the clinical conditions of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Until recently, chemotherapy was considered ineffective in pancreatic cancer, and most oncologists treated these patients with best-supportive-care only. Enthusiasm for systemic therapy of advanced pancreatic cancer is again growing, spurred by the advent of new drugs and new treatment endpoints such as life quality and symptom palliation. Gemcitabine, the most intensively-investigated new drug in pancreatic cancer, has shown an advantage in both survival and clinical benefit over that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Other new drugs such as taxanes have shown interesting levels of activity, and are deserving of further evaluation. Although these results are far from conclusive and are only partially satisfactory, they represent a significant step forward in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. (+info)