Perceptions of vocational trainees on gender and racial disadvantage within the Thames vocational training programme.
BACKGROUND: A recent report has suggested that vocational trainees within London experienced racial or gender disadvantage during their selection. This exploratory study did not investigate the extent or the nature of this disadvantage. AIM: To undertake a survey using a pre-tested questionnaire with dental vocational trainees on the Thames Scheme. The questionnaire explored perceived and experienced aspects of gender and racial disadvantage during their vocational training programme. RESULTS: 127 trainees completed the questionnaire (response rate 92%). Minority ethnic respondents were more than twice as likely to feel their selection was influenced by gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.02, 5.10) and more than three times likely to feel selection was influenced by their race when compared with their white colleagues (OR 3.05, 95%; CI 1.01,11.45). The majority of trainees did not perceive any disadvantage whilst on the vocational training course. For example, only five respondents (4%) felt that minority ethnic individuals were treated less favourably during the vocational training course. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this preliminary study has attempted to explore inter-ethnic differences within the profession on perceived racial disadvantage and possible strategies for change. It is clear that the perception of disadvantage is greater than the reality within the experience of most trainees. (+info)
Ethics--dental registration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century.
In the histories of dentistry, some mention is made of the licensing of tooth-drawers, and those who provided dental healthcare before the term Dentist started to become general in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. One of the most striking references to licensing appears in a little piece of doggerel printed under a 1768 print by Dixon after Harris. (+info)
Better opportunities for women dentists: a review of the contribution of women dentists to the workforce.
In June 2000 the Department of Health commissioned a review to examine the need for improvements to the employment opportunities for women dentists in the National Health Service (NHS) across England. Dame Margaret Seward carried out the review, which was published in September 2001. The review was considered necessary for four main reasons. Firstly, workforce panning, because now more than 50% of new entrants to dental undergraduate courses in the UK are female and by 2020 over 50% of all practising dentists will be female. Secondly, evidence that 50% of women in dentistry work for no more than two days per week for the NHS. Thirdly, most women work either as associates in general dental practice (GDP) or in the Community Dental Service (CDS). Lastly, the perception that women find it difficult to return to dentistry after taking a career break. (+info)
Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.
Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed. (+info)
Cytogenetic biomonitoring of Brazilian dentists occupationally exposed to low doses of X-radiation.
Exposure to X-rays (ionizing radiation) may cause chromosomal aberrations (CA) in somatic or germinative cells in exposed individuals, and may lead to manifestations of diseases such as cancer. This study was carried out to assess the CA frequency in lymphocytes obtained by means of temporary culture of peripheral blood from dentists in Londrina, Parana, Brazil, who have worked for more than ten years with X-rays. The results obtained from the experimental group were compared with a matched negative control group, which had never been exposed to X-rays. All individuals, dentists and controls, answered a personal questionnaire, from which a profile of each group was obtained. Slides, prepared after the cultures, were stained with Giemsa, and 100 to 200 metaphase cells were analyzed per individual. CA frequencies and types were registered and statistical tests were not necessary to evaluate the obtained data. The analysis of mitotic index (MI) did not indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the group of individuals exposed to X-rays and the control group. The analyzed confounding factors did not influence the results of MI and CA frequencies. (+info)
Gender differences in career and practice patterns of PGD-trained dentists.
This study compares differences by gender in the practice patterns and professional activities of general dentists, specialists, and dentists with Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) or General Practice Residency (GPR) training. The UCLA School of Dentistry surveyed a random sample of 6,725 dentists graduating from dental school in 1989, 1993, and 1997 as part of an evaluation of the impact of federal funding on postgraduate general dentist (PGD) programs. The survey asked about current practice, services referred and provided, and professional activities. Of the 2,029 dentists (30 percent) who responded, 49 percent were general dentists with no specialty training; 7 percent had AEGD training; 20 percent had GPR training; and 24 percent had specialty training. General dentists were more likely to be in private practice (p < 0.05). AEGDs, specialists, and females were more likely to report faculty positions as a secondary occupation. General dentists were more likely to be practice owners than AEGD- or GPR-trained dentists. The mean number of patients seen was highest for specialists. Females reported fewer patients than males, and this difference was significant for GPR-trained dentists. With respect to services, GPR-trained dentists reported significantly more biopsy procedures, conscious sedation, periodontal surgery, and implants than general dentists. AEGD-trained dentists reported more conscious sedation than general dentists. GPR dentists were more likely to volunteer time than general dentists without specialty training. PGD training appears to result in different types of employment and specific practice patterns that strengthen primary care dentistry. We further conclude that there are gender differences in the types of practice, patients seen, and services provided. These findings occur in addition to training differences. (+info)
Child-management techniques. Are there differences in the way female and male pediatric dentists in Israel practice?
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the management techniques used by Israeli female and male pediatric dentists. All 112 participants of the meeting of the Israeli Society of Dentistry for Children that was held in February 1999 received a questionnaire which sought information regarding age, sex, behavioral and pharmacological methods used to treat children, having a course in nitrous oxide, general anesthesia, and feelings towards pediatric patients. No differences between female and male dentists were found regarding most management techniques. The majority of dentists used tell-show-do, and gave presents at the end of the appointments. Hypnosis was the least used technique. Papoose board was more prevalent among male dentists than among female dentists. Most dentists reported having the parents present during treatment, and more male dentists used their assistance when restraint was needed. General anesthesia was significantly more prevalent among males than among females (p = 0.01). One-third of the dentists reported feeling aggression toward the pediatric patient. Although not statistically significant, more female dentists reported about feeling aggression than male dentists. Most dentists felt authority towards the pediatric patient. Our findings imply that female and male dentists use similar management techniques when treating children. (+info)
Strategies to create and sustain a diverse faculty and student body at the Boston University School of Dental Medicine.
The challenges and opportunities inherent in creating and sustaining a diverse student body and a diverse faculty, staff, and administration are discussed in the context of the experience of the Boston University School of Dental Medicine. The role of the school's evolution as a learning organization is highlighted as an essential contributing factor to success in minority recruitment and retention efforts. (+info)