(1/87) Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro.

To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules.  (+info)

(2/87) Clinical evaluation of an electron-ionizing toothbrush with a tooth paste containing stannous fluoride in treatment of dentine hypersensitivity following periodontal surgery.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an electro-ionizing toothbrush with stannous fluoride in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity following periodontal surgery. Thirty-two volunteers with dentin hypersensitivity were divided in two equal groups each using different methods: (Group I) stannous fluoride dentifrice and hyG Brnde ionizing brush without a battery and (Group II) stannous fluoride dentifrice and hyG Brnde ionizing brush with a battery. The volunteers brushed their teeth for 3 minutes twice a day for 12 weeks following one either of the test protocols. Mechanical (No 23 dental explorer), chemical (lemon juice) and thermal (dental air-water syringe) tests were used for the evaluation of the degree of dentin hypersensitivity. A subjective assessment of the degree of hypersensitivity for each stimulus was recorded. The evaluations were repeated at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgical treatment. The second group showed significantly less sensitivity than the first group. The findings appear to suggest that the ionizing brush may be an effective adjunct for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity in post-periodontal surgery.  (+info)

(3/87) Gingival prostheses--a review.

Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable and may be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials. Undercuts or dental attachments are used to secure removable prostheses, which are esthetically pleasing and easy to maintain. This paper describes several clinical situations in which gingival prostheses were used effectively.  (+info)

(4/87) Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity.

These consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity were developed by a broadly constituted board of dentists and dental hygienists drawn from general dental practice, specialist practice, academia and research from across Canada, joined by 2 international dentists with subject matter expertise. The need for consensus recommendations was made evident by the lack of clear and robust evidence in the dental literature, as well as confusion about diagnosis and management demonstrated by an educational needs assessment survey. High prevalence of the condition, underdiagnosis and widespread availability of noninvasive, efficacious and inexpensive preventive treatment further underscored the need for direction. This paper outlines the key elements of the scientific basis for the causes, diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity; where such evidence is deficient, the document relies on the compound experience of the board. A simple algorithm was developed to guide clinicians through the diagnostic process and assist them in determining appropriate case management. Finally, the board makes a series of recommendations to raise awareness, to improve dental education, to develop symbols for charting, to develop an index for case assessment and for further research.  (+info)

(5/87) Tooth bleaching--a critical review of the biological aspects.

Present tooth-bleaching techniques are based upon hydrogen peroxide as the active agent. It is applied directly, or produced in a chemical reaction from sodium perborate or carbamide peroxide. More than 90% immediate success has been reported for intracoronal bleaching of non-vital teeth, and in the period of 1-8 years' observation time, from 10 to 40% of the initially successfully treated teeth needed re-treatment. Cervical root resorption is a possible consequence of internal bleaching and is more frequently observed in teeth treated with the thermo-catalytic procedure. When the external tooth-bleaching technique is used, the first subjective change in tooth color may be observed after 2-4 nights of tooth bleaching, and more than 90% satisfactory results have been reported. Tooth sensitivity is a common side-effect of external tooth bleaching observed in 15%-78% of the patients, but clinical studies addressing the risk of other adverse effects are lacking. Direct contact with hydrogen peroxide induced genotoxic effects in bacteria and cultured cells, whereas the effect was reduced or abolished in the presence of metabolizing enzymes. Several tumor-promoting studies, including the hamster cheek pouch model, indicated that hydrogen peroxide might act as a promoter. Multiple exposures of hydrogen peroxide have resulted in localized effects on the gastric mucosa, decreased food consumption, reduced weight gain, and blood chemistry changes in mice and rats. Our risk assessment revealed that a sufficient safety level was not reached in certain clinical situations of external tooth bleaching, such as bleaching one tooth arch with 35% carbamide peroxide, using several applications per day of 22% carbamide peroxide, and bleaching both arches simultaneously with 22% carbamide peroxide. The recommendation is to avoid using concentrations higher than 10% carbamide peroxide when one performs external bleaching. We advocate a selective use of external tooth bleaching based on high ethical standards and professional judgment.  (+info)

(6/87) Gingival recessions caused by lip piercing: case report.

Fear of losing the teeth is common among patients presenting with gingival recession. This report describes a case in which unusual gingival recessions were caused by lip piercing. Periodontal treatment involved removal of the causative agent, hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing, and coverage of the root with a subepithelial connective tissue graft. The therapeutic measures applied in this case yielded satisfactory root coverage, an increase in the width of the keratinized gingiva, improvement in hygiene status and absence of dental hypersensitivity.  (+info)

(7/87) Influence of natural fruit juices in removing the smear layer from root surfaces--an in vitro study.

Certain elements of a patient's diet may be associated with dentin hypersensitivity. The intent of this study was to evaluate the degree of removal of the smear layer from dentin surfaces by various fruit juices. A smear layer was created on extracted human teeth by manual scaling. The roots were reduced and distributed into 8 experimental groups. Distilled water was the negative control. The juices were applied by 2 methods: topical application and topical application with friction. Specimens were photomicrographed and graded according to an index of smear layer removal. With topical application, all but 2 of the tested substances resulted in significantly greater removal of the smear layer and opening of dentinal tubules than was the case with the negative control (p = 0.05); the exceptions were Gala apple and Italian grape juices, which were no different from the control. For the active application (with friction), most substances removed more smear layer than the control (p < 0.05); Gala apple, Italian grape and orange juices were similar to the control. For each of the tested substances, removal of the smear layer did not differ with the method of application (topical vs. friction; p > 0.05). It is concluded that natural fruit juices can remove the smear layer from dentin surfaces, and the efficacy of this removal varies with the type of juice.  (+info)

(8/87) Durability of FTLA treatment as a medicament for dentin hypersensitivity--abrasion resistance and profiles of fluoride release.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the durability of tubules occluded with FTLA treatment by toothbrush abrasion test on the applied surface and by measuring fluoride release from the FTLA components. Dentin specimens with simulated hypersensitive surfaces were treated with APF containing tannic acid. After which, the specimens received lanthanum-chloride-with-powdered-fluoroapatite-glass-ceramics treatment. The specimens were subjected to toothbrush abrasion test up to 6,000 strokes. SEM observation revealed that dentinal tubules of the FTLA treated specimens were completely occluded with fine deposits even after toothbrush abrasion of 6,000 strokes. EPMA analysis revealed that fluoride, lanthanum, and aluminum were the main FTLA components on the dentin surface after 6,000-stroke abrasion. To measure fluoride release from the FTLA components, a slurry was enclosed in a cellulose tube and suspended in deionized water at 37 degrees C. After fluoride was dialyzed against deionized water, a high concentration of fluoride was found to be released from FTLA the components, indicating FTLA treatment's prominent durability. These results suggested that FTLA treatment has a superior resistance against toothbrush abrasion and a high fluoride-releasing performance. These characteristics lend much weight to showing that the FTLA method is an effective and durable medicament for dentin hypersensitivity.  (+info)