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(1/116) Trends in surgical and nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

BACKGROUND: New research is demonstrating that a person's total health is indeed related to his or her oral health. Elimination of all oral infections, including gingivitis and periodontis, is important to overall health. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This article reviews recent evidence on the systemic and oral connection and discusses these findings as they relate to patient care. The article examines trends in nonsurgical and surgical therapy that will successfully arrest periodontal infections. Opportunities for early diagnosis and prevention will play an increasing role in dental practice in the future as patients understand the importance of oral health to overall health.  (+info)

(2/116) Microbial aerosols in general dental practice.

OBJECTIVE: To measure the concentration of microbial aerosols in general dental practices and to use this information to carry out quantitative microbiological risk assessments. METHODOLOGY: Microbial air sampling was carried out continuously during 12 treatment sessions in 6 general dental practices in the South West of England. RESULTS: The microbial aerosol concentration in treatment rooms was generally less than 10(3) colony forming units per cubic metre of air (cfu x m(-3)). However, in 6 out of the 12 visits, at least one peak concentration with much higher numbers of bacteria was detected. The peak concentrations were associated with increased recoveries of presumptive oral streptococci suggesting these aerosols originated from the mouths of patients. These aerosol peaks dissipated within 30 minutes and no dissemination into waiting areas was detected. The peak concentrations were associated with mechanical scaling procedures (47% of procedures giving rise to a peak) and to a lesser extent by cavity preparation (11%). No aerosolised blood was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The data have been used to generate a framework for quantifying risk of exposure of staff to aerosolised microbial pathogens in general dental practice. For example, dentists and their assistants may have a slightly higher risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis than the general public. The use of face seal masks that have been shown to protect against aerosolised micro-organisms may reduce this exposure.  (+info)

(3/116) Morphologic analysis, by means of scanning electron microscopy, of the effect of Er: YAG laser on root surfaces submitted to scaling and root planing.

The purpose of this study was to morphologically evaluate, by means of scanning electron microscopy, the effects of Er:YAG laser on the treatment of root surfaces submitted to scaling and root planing with conventional periodontal instruments. Eighteen root surfaces (n = 18), which had been previously scaled and planed, were assigned to 3 groups (n = 6). The control Group (G1) received no further treatment; Group 2 (G2) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 mum), with 47 mJ/10 Hz, in a focused mode with air/water spray during 15 s and with 0.57 J/cm of fluency per pulse; Group 3 (G 3) was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (2.94 mum), with 83 mJ/10 Hz, in a focused mode with air/water spray during 15 s and with 1.03 J/cm2 of fluency per pulse. We concluded that the parameters adopted for Group 3 removed the smear layer from the root surface, exposing the dentinal tubules. Although no fissures, cracks or carbonized areas were observed, an irregular surface was produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation. Thus, the biocompatibility of the irradiated root surface, within the periodontal healing process, must be assessed.  (+info)

(4/116) Influence of diazepam on blood glucose levels in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects under dental treatment with local anesthesia.

The effect of diazepam on blood glucose concentration (BGC) was investigated in a double-blind cross-over study in 10 healthy and 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taking oral hypoglycemic drugs. In the first session, fasting blood samples were taken for blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin estimation and at 60, 80, 95, 125, and 155 minutes thereafter for glucose estimation. In another 2 sessions, a venous sample was taken immediately before premedication (5 mg diazepam or placebo randomly given during breakfast). One hour later a blood sample was taken, and the volunteers were submitted to periodontal treatment after injection of 1.8 mL of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline. Venous blood samples were taken at 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after injection. The changes in BGC were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures; the means were compared using Tukey test (P = .05). Statistically significant differences in the BGC were observed between diabetic and nondiabetic groups (P = .00003). However, there were no significant differences among the sessions of the same group (P = .29). The results of this study show that a single dose of 5 mg diazepam before dental treatment does not influence BGC in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.  (+info)

(5/116) Comparison of the effects of various periodontal rotary instruments on surface characteristics of root surface.

The efficacy of scaling and root planing using various periodontal rotary instruments was examined. Eighty extracted human teeth with a history of periodontal disease were divided into four groups of 20 and subjected to one of the following procedures: Use of 1) a Root Burnisher, 2) a Perio Planing Bur (both rotating instruments for contra angle handpieces), 3) a Tooth Planing Bur (rotating instrument for use with an air turbine), or 4) a Gracey Scaler. In each case, the time required for cleaning was measured. Twenty healthy extracted human teeth were used as untreated controls. After treatment, the surface roughness of 10 specimens out of each group were measured using a profilometer and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Half of the samples were then incubated in dishes with a suspension of fibroblasts. After counting the number of attached cells, the attachment of fibroblasts was observed by SEM. The root surfaces treated with the rotary instruments appeared smooth and there were no significant differences between groups. From the SEM observations, smooth root surfaces with different surface textures were evident and a tight attachment of fibroblasts was observed. The results of this study suggest that use of rotary instruments is superior for periodontal scaling and root planing.  (+info)

(6/116) A comparative evaluation of the clinical effects of systemic and local doxycycline in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

In this study, the clinical efficacies of systemic doxycycline (SD) and local doxycycline (LD) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis were compared. Forty-five patients were studied in 3 main groups with 5 treatments: SD alone, SD+scaling-root planing (SD+SRP), LD alone, LD+SRP and SRP alone. Antibiotic-treated patients were given doxycycline treatment alone in 1 quadrant of their upper jaws, and doxycycline+SRP was given in the contralateral quadrant. The areas included at least 4 teeth with > or = 5 mm pockets. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level, gingival index, sulcular bleeding index and plaque index values were recorded at baseline and the 7th week. The results were statistically analyzed. All of the clinical parameters were significantly reduced by all treatments (P < or = 0.05). The SD and LD treatments alone provided significant clinical healings. The significant differences among the groups were only in PD at the 7th week. The LD treatment provided significantly higher PD reduction than the SD treatment (P < or = 0.05). No significant difference was found between the SD+SRP and the LD+SRP treatments. There was no significant difference between SD+SRP and SRP alone treatment (P > 0.05). The SD group showed lower PD reduction than SRP group (P < or = 0.05), while no significant difference was found between LD and SRP treatments. The LD alone treatment seemed more effective than SD alone treatment on PD reduction, but no significant difference was found between them when combined with the SRP. LD may be more preferable than SD as an adjunct to mechanical treatment since LD seems more effective than SD on PD reduction and does not have the side effects of SD.  (+info)

(7/116) Control of gingival inflammation in a teenager population using ultrasonic prophylaxis.

Gingival inflammation is clinically characterized by gingival redness, swelling and increased tendency of bleeding of the soft tissue. Bacterial biofilm is the etiological agent. If, at this stage, the bacterial biofilm is removed and appropriate control methods are applied, remission of gingival inflammation occurs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a single session of ultrasonic prophylaxis for the reduction of gingivitis in an adolescent population using the Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI). The study sample consisted of 15 male adolescent students selected at a dentist's office of a public high school. Prior to treatment (baseline), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. The patients then received oral hygiene instructions and ultrasonic prophylaxis. Follow-up exams were made 15 and 30 days after the ultrasonic prophylaxis, again recording PI and BOP. The data were analyzed by the Student's t-test for dependent samples. Correlation analysis between presence of biofilm and bleeding on probing was also made using the Pearson correlation test. There was a statistically significant decrease in the plaque index and bleeding on probing between baseline and examinations at both 15 days and 30 days (p<0.05). However, the difference between the means at 15 and 30 days was statistically similar. The correlation analysis showed correlation between both parameters (p<0.05). The results indicate that a single session of ultrasonic prophylaxis associated to oral hygiene instructions is efficient to reverse gingivitis in adolescents.  (+info)

(8/116) Necrotising periodontal diseases.

Necrotizing gingivitis (NG) or necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is considered to be an acute opportunistic gingival infection caused by bacterial plaque. It appears more frequently in undernurished children and young adults as well as patients with immunodeficiency. In its pathogenesis, there are factors related to the oral microbiota with invasion processes on the one hand, and on the other hand, factors associated with the host, such as signs of capillary and immunological disorders as well as undernurishment. The disease is characterized by pain, bleeding and papillary necrosis with tendency to relapse. Diagnosis is made by a simple clinical examination. However, complementary tests ought to be performed in order to eliminate the possibility of illnesses systemic or immunodeficiency. Early and sustained treatment is strongly recommended. Lesions of the gums (craters in the interdental papillae) as an aftermath of the disease is a possibility, or if there is necrotizing periodontitis there will be loss of attachment tissue.  (+info)