A patient in his early 20s with teeth badly discoloured by tetracycline was seeking treatment to improve his esthetics. Because retreatment and cost were important considerations, porcelain veneers were the treatment of choice. The challenge in this case was to mask the underlying tetracycline stain before the final cementation and thus gain more control over the final shade of the veneers. (+info)
Microstructure and homogeneity of dental porcelain frits.
The microstructure and homogeneity of three commercial dentin and incisal unfired porcelain frits (one conventional and two ultra-low fusing types, fused-to metal were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microspectroscopy, and wavelength- and energy dispersive X-ray microspectroscopy. The average contents of tetragonal and cubic leucite for the conventional and one of the ultra-low fusing type frits were 20.1-22.6 wt% and 0-2.6 wt%, respectively, whereas those of another of the ultra-low fusing type frits were about 11.5-11.6 wt% and 2.9-4.6 wt%, respectively. The conventional type frits seemed to be admixtures of three kinds of glass frits. One of the ultra-low fusing type frits seemed to be an admixture of four kinds of glass frits. Another ultra-low fusing frits seemed to be only one kind of glass frit dispersed with small size, less than 1 micron, leucite crystals. There were no remarkable differences in microstructure and homogeneity between dentin and incisal porcelain frits in each brand. (+info)
Factors affecting the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain.
The aim of this investigation was to establish a regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain, which ensures adequate bond strength (6-8 MPa) with minimal damage on debond and consisted of an ex vivo investigation measuring the effects of porcelain surface preparation and thermocycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. One-hundred-and-twenty feldspathic porcelain bonded crown surfaces were divided into 12 equally-sized groups to assess the effects of: (1) glaze removal, (2) application of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or omission of acid treatment, and (3) silane priming upon the bond strength of premolar brackets bonded with Right-on (TM) composite resin adhesive. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to shear debonding forces on an Instron machine. Removal of the porcelain glaze, or use of hydrofluoric acid, prior to bonding were found to be unnecessary to secure the target bond strength. Hydrofluoric acid application was associated with increased porcelain surface damage. Thermocycling caused a significant reduction in shear bond strength to porcelain (P < 0*001). The best regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, and prime with silane prior to bonding. Usually the porcelain surfaces could be repolished. Refereed Paper (+info)
Effect of cooling condition on leucite crystals in dental porcelains.
X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to analyze the crystal phases of three commercial dentin and incisal porcelains prepared by normal cooling, quenching in water, and controlled slow annealing after normal firing. There were no remarkable differences in the contents of either tetragonal and cubic leucite in the fired porcelain discs prepared under the three cooling conditions. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the parameters of the a-axis and c-axis of tetragonal leucite, and the a-axis of cubic leucite among them. These results suggest that the cooling condition has little effect on the microstructural changes of leucite crystals in the dental porcelains, since the leucite crystals were formed at a higher temperature range than the firing- and cooling-temperature range and were stabilized by incorporation of additives into the lattice. (+info)
Lattice parameter changes of leucite by incorporation of various cations substituted for potassium.
Leucite crystals having modified compositions from stoichiometry were prepared by the incorporation of Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ca2+, Ba2+, and Sb3+ substituted for 5-50 at% of K+ in the leucite. The lattice parameters of the a- and c-axes of these tetragonal leucite were derived from the diffraction angles of (400) and (004) peaks due to tetragonal leucite, respectively. Both lattice parameters of the a- and c-axes of the leucites except Rb and Cs were slightly smaller than those of stoichiometric leucite. The lattice parameters of the a-axis of the leucites containing Rb and Cs were larger than those of stoichiometric leucite (p < 0.01) and increased with the content of Rb and Cs. It was concluded that the crystal lattice of leucite was deformed by the incorporation of cations substituted for K and their variations mainly depend upon the kind of cation, namely ionic size and substitution site in the lattice. (+info)
Effect of polishing on cyclic fatigue strength of CAD/CAM ceramics.
The biaxial flexural strength and cyclic fatigue biaxial flexural strength of CAD/CAM ceramics polished with #220, 400, 600 and 1000 diamond pads were measured in an effort to determine the effect of surface roughness on fatigue behavior of dental ceramics. The surface roughness was improved after polishing with a smaller diamond grain pad. The flexural strengths of the specimens polished with #220, 400, 600 and 1000 diamond pad were 75.2, 76.6, 82.2, and 83.3 MPa, respectively; the fatigue flexural strength of those with #220, 400, 600 and 1000 were 53.0, 58.1, 60.0, and 61.5 MPa, respectively. Both the flexural and fatigue flexural strengths increased with improvement of surface profile. These results suggest the importance of polishing of dental ceramics for not only the static strength but also the cyclic fatigue strength. (+info)
Firing shrinkage of porcelain-resin composites prepared by laser lithography.
Using porcelain and resin-mixed composites as experimental materials, cubic polymerized composites were prepared by the accumulation of thin slices cured by laser scanning. The composites were then fired, and bulk ceramic bodies were made. The optimal firing conditions of polymerized composites and firing shrinkage were investigated. The results showed that cubic ceramic bodies in a form homologous to that before firing could be reproduced. The volume shrinkage of fired ceramic bodies consisting of 1 g of ceramic powders and 0.3 g of epoxy resin was about 30% under all firing conditions, and there were no significant differences between specimens. It was suggested that with further research and development, three-dimensional forms for clinical use in dentistry could be manufactured by the proposed method. (+info)
Influence of filler content and gap dimension on wear resistance of resin composite luting cements around a CAD/CAM ceramic inlay restoration.
We investigated the influence of filler content and gap dimension on the wear resistance of composite luting cement around CAD/CAM ceramic inlay restorations. Experimental hybrid dual-cured composite luting cements containing 60, 70, 72, 74 and 80 wt% of silanated barium-silica fillers were used for cementing CAD/CAM ceramic inlay into the cavity. The specimens involving inlay-cement-tooth interfaces were subjected to a three-body wear test. The relation between the interfacial gap dimension and wear loss was also investigated using 60, 70 and 80 wt% filled cements. The cements containing more than 70 wt% filler presented significantly higher wear resistance than 60 wt% filled cement. There was a positive linear relationship between gap dimension and wear loss, and the inclination of the regression line decreased with increasing filler content. These results indicated that the higher filler content of the cement increased the wear resistance and this desirable influence appeared more remarkably in the wider horizontal gap dimension. (+info)