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(1/24) Signs of temporomandibular disorders in girls receiving orthodontic treatment. A prospective and longitudinal comparison with untreated Class II malocclusions and normal occlusion subjects.

The aim of this investigation was to prospectively and longitudinally study signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and occlusal changes in girls with Class II malocclusion receiving orthodontic treatment and to compare them with subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions and with normal occlusion subjects. Three groups of age-matched adolescent girls were examined for clinical signs of TMD and re-examined 2 years later. Sixty-five Class II subjects received orthodontic fixed straight-wire appliance treatment (Orthodontic group), 58 subjects were orthodontically untreated (Class II group), and 60 subjects had a normal occlusion (Normal group). In the Orthodontic group, the prevalence of muscular signs of TMD was significantly less common post-treatment. The Class II and the Normal groups showed minor changes during the 2-year period. Temporomandibular joint clicking increased in all three groups over the 2 years, but was less common in the Normal group. The Normal group also had a lower overall prevalence of signs of TMD than the Orthodontic and the Class II groups at both registrations. Functional occlusal interferences decreased in the Orthodontic group, but remained the same in the other groups over the 2 years. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment did not increase the risk for or worsen pretreatment signs of TMD. On the contrary, subjects with Class II malocclusions and signs of TMD of muscular origin seemed to benefit functionally from orthodontic treatment in a 2-year perspective. The Normal group had a lower prevalence of signs of TMD than the Orthodontic and the untreated Class II groups.  (+info)

(2/24) Temporomandibular disorders and the need for stomatognathic treatment in orthodontically treated and untreated girls.

The aim of this investigation was to study symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headaches longitudinally in girls with Class II malocclusions receiving orthodontic treatment in comparison with subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions and girls with normal occlusion, and to evaluate the need and demand for stomatognathic treatment. The frequency and location of subjective symptoms of TMD and headaches were registered by means of an interview and a questionnaire in three groups of age-matched adolescent girls. Sixty-five Class II subjects received orthodontic fixed straight-wire appliance treatment (Orthodontic group), 58 with Class I malocclusion were orthodontically untreated (Class II group) and 60 had a normal occlusion (Normal group). Individual fluctuations of reported symptoms of TMD were found in all three groups over the 2-year period of the study. Subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions rated their overall symptoms of TMD as more severe than the Orthodontic and the Normal groups. In the Orthodontic group, the prevalence of symptoms of TMD decreased over the 2 years. The overall prevalence of symptoms of TMD was, however, lower in the Normal group than in the other two groups. The need for stomatognathic treatment in the whole sample was estimated to be 13 per cent, while the actual demand was 3 per cent. The large fluctuation of symptoms of TMD over time leads us to suggest a conservative treatment approach when stomatognathic treatment in children and adolescents is considered. The results show that orthodontic treatment did not increase the risk of TMD.  (+info)

(3/24) Functional occlusion: I. A review.

The features that constitute an "ideal" functional occlusion have not been conclusively established. Orthodontic treatment has the capacity to change static and functional occlusal relationships fundamentally. In this article, we present the evidence on which features of the occlusion are reported to be detrimental to the teeth and masticatory system Deficiencies in this research area are highlighted, together with the need for prospective longitudinal trials to clarify the requirements of an ideal functional occlusion Based on the existing evidence this paper suggests which occlusal features may be significant in producing an "ideal" functional occlusion As no long-term studies exist to measure the impact of non-ideal occlusal relationships on the dentition, it is debatable whether orthodontic treatment should be prolonged in order to ensure that "ideal" occlusal contacts are achieved As the occlusion tends to "settle" in the period following appliance removal, we propose that it may be more appropriate to examine the functional occlusal relationships after retention has ceased rather than prolong active orthodontic treatment to achieve "ideal" functional occlusal goals.  (+info)

(4/24) Orthodontic side-effects of mandibular advancement devices during treatment of snoring and sleep apnoea.

The aims of this study were to investigate possible orthodontic side-effects following the use of mandibular advancement devices (MAD) in adults with snoring and sleep apnoea. A second objective was to analyse the effect of the appliance design. Seventy-five patients treated with MAD and 17 reference patients were studied at follow-up after 2.5 +/- 0.5 years. In the test group, 47 patients were provided with soft elastomeric devices, while the remaining 28 patients received hard acrylic devices. The treatment induced a change in overjet of -0.4 +/- 0.8 mm (mean +/- SD) and a change in overbite of -0.4 +/- 0.7 mm (mean +/- SD). These changes were larger than those found in the reference group (P < 0.01). The odds ratio (OR) for the largest quartile of reduction in overjet was 3.8 in patients using hard acrylic devices compared with those using soft elastomeric devices (P < 0.05). A large reduction in overjet in patients using the hard acrylic devices was unrelated to the degree of mandibular protrusion by the device. The OR for a large reduction in overjet in patients using the soft elastomeric devices with a protrusion of 6 mm or above was 6.8 compared with smaller mandibular protrusions (P < 0.05). The results indicate that the orthodontic side-effects are small during the treatment of adult subjects with MAD for snoring and sleep apnoea, especially in patients using soft elastomeric devices with mandibular protrusions of less than 6 mm. The follow-up of patients treated with MAD is recommended, as individual patients may experience marked orthodontic side-effects.  (+info)

(5/24) Occlusal considerations in periodontics.

Periodontal disease does not directly affect the occluding surfaces of teeth, consequently some may find a section on periodontics a surprising inclusion. Trauma from the occlusion, however, has been linked with periodontal disease for many years. Karolyi published his pioneering paper, in 1901 'Beobachtungen uber Pyorrhoea alveolaris' (occlusal stress and 'alveolar pyorrhoea'). (1) However, despite extensive research over many decades, the role of occlusion in the aetiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontitis is still not completely understood.  (+info)

(6/24) Replantation of an avulsed incisor after prolonged dry storage: a case report.

Management of tooth avulsion in the permanent dentition often presents a challenge. Definitive treatment planning and consultation with specialists is seldom possible at the time of emergency treatment. Replantation of the avulsed tooth can restore esthetic appearance and occlusal function shortly after the injury. This article describes the management of a child with an avulsed maxillary permanent incisor that had been air-dried for about 18 hours. The replanted incisor retained its esthetic appearance and functionality 2 years after replantation, yet the long-term prognosis is not good because of progressive replacement root resorption.  (+info)

(7/24) The cracked tooth syndrome.

The purpose of this article is to review the clinical features, diagnosis and management of the cracked tooth syndrome (CTS). The condition refers to an incomplete fracture of a vital posterior tooth that occasionally extends into the pulp. A lack of awareness of the condition coupled with its varied clinical features can make diagnosis of CTS difficult. Common symptoms include an uncomfortable sensation or pain from a tooth that occurs while chewing hard foods and which ceases when the pressure is withdrawn. The patient is often unable to identify the offending tooth or quadrant involved, and may report a history of numerous dental procedures with unsatisfactory results. Successful diagnosis and management requires an awareness of the existence of CTS and the appropriate diagnostic tests. Management options depend on the nature of the symptoms and extent of the lesion. These options include routine monitoring, occlusal adjustments, placement of a cast restoration and endodontic treatment. A decision flowchart indicating the treatment options available to the dental practitioner is presented.  (+info)

(8/24) Occlusal interferences in orthodontic patients before and after treatment, and in subjects with minor orthodontic treatment need.

Different opinions have been expressed concerning the effect of orthodontic treatment on mandibular function. One factor discussed is occlusal interferences. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of occlusal interferences in 210 orthodontic patients before (mean age 12 years 8 months) and after (mean age 16 years 10 months) treatment and to compare them with subjects with minor orthodontic treatment need. The results showed a decrease in retruded contact position/intercuspal position (RCP/ICP) interferences in all morphological deviations, age, and gender groups. The prevalence of mediotrusion interferences decreased in some types of malocclusions whilst in others there was no change. One reason for this is that treatment was started when the majority of the patients had no second or third molars erupted. At the final registration, the second molars were erupted in all patients, and the third molars were erupted in approximately 25 per cent. Mediotrusion interferences were more consistent with basal morphological deviations, for example, Class III relationships and anterior open bite were more consistent in the same person, and more difficult to eliminate than RCP/ICP interferences. RCP/ICP interferences, often caused by dental deviation in position, size, and shape, were easier to correct. Optimal orthodontic treatment, if necessary, including selective grinding, will decrease the prevalence of occlusal interferences.  (+info)