Purification and partial characterization of a novel glucanhydrolase from Lipomyces starkeyi KSM 22 and its use for inhibition of insoluble glucan formation.
A novel glucanhydrolase from a mutant of Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 74054 was purified. The single protein (100 kDa) showed either dextranolytic or amylolytic activity. We referred to the glucanhydrolase as a DXAMase. The DXAMase was produced in a starch medium and it was 3.75-fold more active for hydrolysis of the purified insoluble-glucan of Streptococcus mutans than Penicillium funiculosum dextranase. Aggregation of S. mutans cells with dextran and adherence to glass were eliminated by incubating with the DXAMase. The addition of DXAMase (0.1 IU/ml) to the mutansucrase reaction digest with sucrose reduced the formation of insoluble-glucan about 80%. Also the DXAMase (0.5 IU/ml) removed 80% of the pre-formed sucrose-dependent adherent film. These in vitro properties of L. starkeyi KSM 22 DXAMase are desirable for its application as a dental plaque control agent. (+info)
Oral colonization by Candida albicans.
Candida albicans is a commensal yeast normally present in small numbers in the oral flora of a large proportion of humans. Colonization of the oral cavity by C. albicans involves the acquisition and maintenance of a stable yeast population. Micro-organisms are continually being removed from the oral cavity by host clearance mechanisms, and so, in order to survive and inhabit this eco-system, C. albicans cells have to adhere and replicate. The oral cavity presents many niches for C. albicans colonization, and the yeast is able to adhere to a plethora of ligands. These include epithelial and bacterial cell-surface molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, and dental acrylic. In addition, saliva molecules, including basic proline-rich proteins, adsorbed to many oral surfaces promote C. albicans adherence. Several adhesins present in the C. albicans cell wall have now been partially characterized. Adherence involves lectin, protein-protein, and hydrophobic interactions. As C. albicans cells evade host defenses and colonize new environments by penetrating tissues, they are exposed to new adherence receptors and respond by expressing alternative adhesins. The relatively small number of commensal Candida cells in the oral flora raises the possibility that strategies can be devised to prevent oral colonization and infection. However, the variety of oral niches and the complex adherence mechanisms of the yeast mean that such a goal will remain elusive until more is known about the contribution of each mechanism to colonization. (+info)
Cytotoxicity of dental resin monomers in the presence of S9 mix enzymes.
The purpose of the this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of dental resin monomers in the presence of a rat liver S9 mix containing cytochrome P 450 enzymes. JTC-12 cells derived from a monkey kidney were seeded on a 96-well multi-well-plate at 9 x 10(3) cells per well. After cultivation, the S9 mix was added to the wells as an S9 mix group (+S9), and PBS- was added to the other wells as a none-S9 mix group (-S9), then 7 different concentrations of various monomers were added to each well. All the specimens were cultured for another 24 hrs. The cell survival ratios (CSR) were calculated by using a neutral red cytotoxicity assay. CSR for 50 micrograms/mL of Bis-GMA/S9 mix was 92.6% while for none-S9 mix it was 6.6%. The values of CSR for UDMA, Bis-MPEPP, EGDMA, TEGDMA, DMAEM, 4-META and HEMA exhibited a reduction in cytotoxicity in the presence of the S9 mix. There were significant differences between +S9 and -S9 for respective monomers (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between +S9 and -S9 for MMA (p < 0.05). (+info)
The science of bonding: from first to sixth generation.
BACKGROUND: Adhesive dentistry has revolutionized restorative dental practice during the past 30 years. Improved adhesive materials have made resin-based composite restorations more reliable and long-standing. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This article reviews the evolution of bonding from the first generation to current bonding materials. It discusses the composition and effectiveness of the various iterations. Current products are highlighted to improve clinical use and performance of the materials. (+info)
Current trends in removable prosthodontics.
BACKGROUND: This article discusses trends in the demographics and treatment of the edentulous patient. It is clear that there still is a tremendous need for removable-prosthodontic services today. While the basic process of making dentures has changed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help laboratories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value to patients. Implant treatment is a tremendous adjunct to removable prosthodontics in the treatment of edentulous patients, but it is not within the financial reach of all dental patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The clinical skills required to deliver excellent complete denture care are also paramount to successful implant prosthodontics (fixed and removable) and esthetic dentistry. Even so, the opportunities to develop these skills and the interest appear to be decreasing at the same time that the need is projected to increase. In service to our patients, the profession must examine this trend closely. (+info)
Work-related vision hazards in the dental office.
Among the numerous threats to the dentist's health there is one relating to the eye. The paper discusses the impact of selected adverse factors on the eye in connection with dental practice in the surgery. (+info)
Estrogenic activity of dental materials and bisphenol-A related chemicals in vitro.
Twenty-eight chemicals used as dental materials and bisphenol-A related chemicals were diluted with DMSO to concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-3) M and tested for estrogenicity. Bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-F (BPF) and bisphenol-A-bischloroformate (BPACF) showed estrogenic activity using the yeast two-hybrid system, and BPA, BPF, BPACF and bisphenol-S (BPS) showed estrogenic activity using the fluorescence polarization system. However, none of the remaining chemicals and none of the dental materials showed any activity at concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-3) M. Although BPA, BPF, BPACF, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate and BPS showed estrogenic activity in the E-screen test, the remaining chemicals did not. Thus, most of the chemicals showed consistent results, either positive or negative, by the three testing methods, while two chemicals showed conflicting results. Further studies, together with in vivo and epidemiological examinations, are required. Elucidation of the structure-activity relationships of these chemicals is also needed to estimate the estrogenicity of a chemical from its structure. (+info)
Side-effects of dental materials reported in Scandinavian countries.
Dental treatment usually involves a wide range of materials which continue to grow in number and complexity. During the last decade there has been an increasing demand for safety evaluation and control of dental materials. Since it is the members of the dental staff who handle the materials in their most reactive states they constitute the main risk category. Bearing this in mind reported side-effects in both patients and dental personnel in Scandinavia are presented. Data from the only two existing national registers for side-effects of dental materials, i.e. those in Norway and Sweden, are thus elucidated. Furthermore, recent mainly Scandinavian publications dealing with the side-effects of dental materials are presented. It can be concluded that a national register on the side-effects of dental materials, apart from revealing information regarding their frequency and nature, may detect changes in the profiles of adverse reactions and also serve as a tool for the post-marketing surveillance of dental materials. (+info)