Factors affecting dimensional instability of alginate impressions during immersion in the fixing and disinfectant solutions.
To clarify the factors determining the dimensional stability of alginate impressions during immersion in disinfectant and fixing solution, the weight change of impressions in solutions of glutaraldehyde (GA), NaClO, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, and ZnSO4 was measured. In the nonelectrolytic solution, GA, the weight decreased in proportion to concentration, possibly due to the gradient of osmotic pressure between the impression and solution. In monovalent metallic salt solutions the weight change decreased with increased concentration. Especially at lower concentrations the rate of weight loss was high. A chemical action of the solution might also be involved, in addition to the osmotic pressure difference. The weight loss in divalent metallic salt solutions was greater than in monovalent solutions, implicating crosslinking reactions between the impression and solution. (+info)
Formulation of glutaraldehyde disinfectant for alginate impressions.
The effect of buffer agents incorporated in glutaraldehyde disinfectants on the surface quality of dental models was examined by the measurement of surface roughness, X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observation. Seven experimental glutaraldehyde disinfectants were prepared using two buffer agents, potassium acetate alone or potassium acetate and sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination. Four kinds of sulfate--zinc, calcium, potassium and magnesium sulfate--were added to these disinfectants in order to accelerate the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate. The impressions treated with the experimental disinfectants for 1 h produced stone surfaces which had significantly lower surface roughness values than those treated with the commercial disinfectants (p < 0.05). The X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observation showed that these superior surfaces were produced as a result of significant reductions in the amount of residual calcium sulfate hemihydrate. Replacement of buffer agents in commercial glutaraldehyde disinfectants with chemicals such as those studied in the present study will improve the surface quality of dental stone. (+info)
Evaluation of a reproduction technique for the study of the enamel composite/bracket base area.
The objective of the study was to evaluate a reproduction method that would enable the study of the enamel/ bracket/composite interface in vivo, and consisted of in vitro assessment of two different impression materials to compare reproduction of brackets bonded to extracted teeth followed by in vivo assessment of the superior material. In vitro standard edgewise brackets were bonded to two extracted teeth and impressions were taken using two different types of low viscosity silicone-based impression materials. A medium viscosity silicone impression material was used to support the original impression. Three impressions of both the gingival and occlusal aspect of the bracket base region were obtained using each of the impression materials. Replicas were then prepared for SEM viewing and these compared to SEMs of the real teeth for reproduction of detail. A 3-point Reproducibility Index was used to compare the SEM photographs of the comparable replicas. One impression material was clearly superior to the other and produced an acceptably accurate representation of the true clinical situation in three out of four samples. This material also performed well in the in vivo situation. The technique described is satisfactory for the production and analysis of SEM pictures of the enamel/composite/ bracket base interface in vivo. (+info)
Swelling/deswelling mechanism of calcium alginate gel in aqueous solutions.
To elucidate the mechanism of dimensional changes in alginate impression in solutions, the relationship between the ion concentrations in three types of solutions (nonelectrolyte and monovalent and divalent metallic salts) and change in gel volume was examined. The gel in the monovalent metallic salt solution expanded and a decrease in monovalent cation and an increase in Ca2+ were observed. This suggests that the crosslinking density of the gel reduced due to dissociation of Ca2+ from the calcium alginate gel. In divalent metallic salt solutions, the shrinkage occurred according to crosslinking of unreacted residue. In the nonelectrolytic solution, gel, neither ethylene glycol nor acetonitrile showed any volume changes, while that in glutaraldehyde contracted. It is speculated that the former two solutions were affected by the fact that the gel has no semipermeability, and that the latter result was due to chemical interaction between the gel and solution. (+info)
Thermal and pH changes, and dimensional stability in irreversible hydrocolloid impression material during setting.
Present study the relation between pH, thermal changes and dimensional stability during setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was investigated. Ten specimens of each product were prepared for different measurements: Thermal, pH changes and dimensional stability (mass and linear). Thermal and pH readings for 20 min and dimensional measurements for a 2 hr period were taken after mixing. It was observed that pH and thermal values changed in relation to different materials, while they did not change with the time according to variance analysis results. On the other hand, dimensional stability showed significant differences with time in all tested impression materials. A continuous pH change was observed with the time of gelation in all irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials tested. Dimensional stability also showed significant differences with time in all impression material and as a result hydrocolloids with a high pH showed better dimensional stability than those with a low pH. (+info)
Gingival prostheses--a review.
Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable and may be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials. Undercuts or dental attachments are used to secure removable prostheses, which are esthetically pleasing and easy to maintain. This paper describes several clinical situations in which gingival prostheses were used effectively. (+info)
A modified impression technique for accurate registration of peri-implant soft tissues.
Replacement of single missing teeth with an implant-supported restoration is recognized as a highly successful treatment. An impression technique for peri-implant soft-tissue replication in an anterior zone is described. The technique involves use of an interim restoration as an abutment for the final impression. This allows accurate duplication of the soft tissues and fabrication of a final restoration with the correct emergence profile. (+info)
The influence of handling on the elasticity of addition silicone putties.
The handling of vinyl polysiloxane (addition silicone) impression putties with latex gloves is said to interfere with the setting of these impression materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of handling techniques on the setting of vinyl polysiloxane impression putties using several types of gloves. The setting of these materials was evaluated by means of an elasticimeter. Four vinyl polysiloxane putty impression materials and five brands of gloves (one made of vinyl, one of synthetic rubber, and three of natural rubber) were studied. Based on the type of glove, they were previously washed or not, and a spatula was used or not for initial mixing (before handmixing). The vinyl, the synthetic and one of the natural rubber gloves did not require the previous washing procedure and/or the use of a spatula for initial mixing. Two other natural rubber gloves - depending on the silicone -, showed satisfactory results only when the initial mixing was performed with a spatula. It was concluded that setting inhibition depends on the kind of vinyl polysiloxane impression material and the kind of gloves used, but when the initial mixing was performed with the spatula this setting inhibition was overcome. The results of this study also showed that it is possible to associate cross-contamination control and satisfactory performance of addition silicone putty materials. When doubts arise from the compatibility between vinyl polysiloxane impression putties and gloves, the initial mixing should be performed with a spatula. (+info)