Relationship between oral health and nutrition in very old people.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional deficiency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study. SUBJECTS: 324 institutionalized frail older adults (mean age 85). MEASUREMENTS: Structured oral examination including an evaluation of mucosa, periodontal state, caries prevalence and denture quality. The nutritional status was assessed using serum albumin concentration and the body mass index. Physical dependence was assessed using the Barthel index. To identify oral health disorders associated with markers of malnutrition we performed the Pearson chi2 test separately for edentulous and dentate patients. Subjects with at least one of the identified oral disorders were classified as having compromised oral functional status. RESULTS: About two-thirds of the subjects were functionally dependent and half had either a body mass index <21 kg/m2 or serum albumin <33 g/l. Among the edentulous, wearing dentures with defective bases or not wearing dentures at all were the factors most associated with malnutrition. In dentate subjects, corresponding identifiers were the number of occluding pairs of teeth (five or fewer, either natural or prosthetic), the number of retained roots (four or more), and the presence of mobile teeth. According to these criteria, 31% of the subjects had a compromised oral functional status. This was more frequently found in dependent subjects (37%) than semi-dependent subjects (18%; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.8). Those with compromised oral functional status had a significantly lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. CONCLUSION: Specific detrimental oral conditions are associated with nutritional deficiency in very old people. (+info)
Predicting population dental disease experience at a small area level using Census and health service data.
BACKGROUND: Information on the dental disease patterns of child populations is required at a small area level. At present, this can be provided only by expensive whole population surveys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Census data combined with health service information to provide estimates of population dental disease experience at the small area level. METHOD: Clinical dental data were collected from a large cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children. A preliminary series of bivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken at ward level with the mean number of decayed, missing or filled teeth per child (dmft) as the dependent variable, and the Census and health service and lifestyle variables suspected of having a strong relationship with dmft as independent variables. This was followed by fitting a multiple linear regression model using a stepwise procedure to include independent variables that explain most of the variability in the dependent variable dmft. RESULTS: All deprivation indicators derived from the Census showed a highly significant (p<0.001) bivariate linear relationship with ward dmft. The Jarman deprivation score gave the highest R2 value (0.45), but the Townsend index (R2=0.43) and the single Census variable 'percentage of households with no car' (R2 = 0.42) gave very similar results. The health and lifestyle indicators also showed highly significant (p<0.001) linear relationships with dmft. The R2 values were generally much lower than the deprivation-related Census variables, with the exception of the percentage of residents who smoked (R2 = 0.42). None of the health or lifestyle variables was included in the final dental disadvantage model. This model explained 51 per cent of the variability of ward dmft. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the strong relationship between dental decay and deprivation, and all of the commonly used measures of deprivation exhibited a similar performance. For this population of young children health and health services shelf data did not improve on the ability of deprivation-related Census variables to predict population dental caries experience at a small area level. (+info)
The use of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) in a school population and referred population.
The aim of this study is to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in a Turkish school population and a group of population referred for orthodontic treatment. The study groups were 250 school children, 11-14 years of age, and 250 patients, 11-14 years of age, referred to the department of orthodontics. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was used by two examiner in order to estimate the treatment need. The differences between the IOTN values for the boys and girls were also not statistically significant in both groups. When the dental health component of IOTN is considered, 38.8 per cent of Turkish school population showed great need treatment, 24.0 per cent moderate need treatment and slight or no need was 37.2 per cent. On the other hand, the referred population represented an 83.2 per cent great need treatment, 12.0 per cent moderate need treatment, 4.8 per cent no need treatment according to the DHC. The AC of IOTN in school population resulted in 4.8 per cent great need, 4.8 per cent moderate need, 90.4 per cent no need. These percentage were 36.8 per cent great need, 17.6 per cent moderate need, 45.2 per cent no need in referred population. Grade 8 was 28.8 per cent out of the 36.8 per cent great need percentage in referred population. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ectopic canines were the driving factor for the referred population. (+info)
Dental attendance in 1998 and implications for the future.
The 1998 survey of Adult Dental Health in the UK was carried out under the auspices of the Office of National Statistics together with the Universities of Birmingham, Dundee, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Wales. A key behavioural indicator in these decennial surveys is whether people say they go to a dentist for a regular dental check-up, an occasional dental check-up or only when they have trouble with their teeth. The proportion of dentate adults in the UK who report attending for regular dental check-ups has risen from 43% in 1978 to 59% in 1998. Older adults (over 55 years old) in 1998 were the most likely to say they attend for regular dental check-ups. Many younger adults (16-24) in 1998 said they went to a dentist less often than 5 years previously, they were also the least likely to say they attend for regular dental check-ups. Dental anxiety remains a problem for many dental patients but another factor of importance to many is their want to be involved in the treatment process and especially to be given an estimate of treatment costs. (+info)
Dental attitudes and behaviours in 1998 and implications for the future.
The 1998 Adult Dental Health Survey included face to face interviews with participants to determine their dental attitudes and behaviours. This article considers reported oral hygiene practices, treatment choices, satisfaction with appearance of teeth, attitudes towards wearing dentures and how these have changed since previous surveys. Although overall there has been a steady improvement in dental health attitudes, adults from disadvantaged households are still lagging behind. This has implications for social equity. (+info)
Developing an index of restorative dental treatment need.
The process undertaken to establish an initial pilot index for restorative dental treatment is described. Following consultation with a wide range of clinicians and others, an outline framework for the index was developed and comprised three main components: 1. Patient identified need for treatment: the data from the patient perceived need questionnaire were inconclusive; 2. Complexity of treatment (assessed by clinicians): this was found to be a practical tool capable of being used by a range of dentists. A booklet has been produced which describes the process of using the scoring system; 3. Priority for treatment (assessed by clinicians): three levels of priority were identified; the highest priority was assigned to patients with inherited or developmental defects that justify complex care (eg clefts of the lip and palate). The initial development of the index has had some success in a difficult area. The treatment complexity component is the most developed and may allow both referrers and commissioners of specialist restorative dentistry to determine appropriate use of skilled clinicians' expertise. (+info)
Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development.
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion in a population of Bogotanian children and adolescents in terms of different degrees of severity in relation to sex and specific stages of dental development, in order to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment in this part of Colombia. A sample of 4724 children (5-17 years of age) was randomly selected from a population that attended the Dental Health Service; none had been orthodontically treated. Based on their dental stages the subjects were grouped into deciduous, early mixed, late mixed and permanent dentition. The registrations were performed according to a method by Bjork et al. (1964). The need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated according to an index used by the Swedish National Board of Health. The results showed that 88 per cent of the subjects had some type of anomaly, from mild to severe, half of them recorded as occlusal anomalies, one-third as space discrepancies, and one-fifth as dental anomalies. No clear sex differences were noted, except for maxillary overjet, spacing, tooth size (all more frequent in boys), and crowding (more frequent in girls). Occlusal anomalies and space discrepancies varied in the different dental developmental periods, as did tipped and rotated teeth. Little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 35 per cent and moderate need in 30 per cent. A great need was estimated in 20 per cent, comprising children with prenormal occlusion, maxillary overjet, or overbite (> 6 mm), posterior unilateral crossbite with midline deviation (> 2 mm), severe crowding or spacing, congenitally missing maxillary incisors, impacted maxillary canines or anterior open bite (> 3 mm in the permanent dentition). Urgent need for treatment was estimated to be 3 per cent, comprising subjects with extreme post- and pre-normal occlusion, impacted maxillary incisors or extensive aplasia. (+info)
Evaluation of dental health in mill workers. Part I. The state of dentition.
A study of the oral health of workers in flour mills was carried out. The examined group consisted of 40 males and 8 females, currently employed at flour mills. The results of the research indicate the necessity of intensification of stomatological care among mill workers. (+info)