Clinical trial of three 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching products.
BACKGROUND: A profusion of commercial bleaching systems exists on the market today, but there are few clinical comparisons of these systems. METHODS: In this study, three different commercial 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching systems were used by 24 patients in an overnight protocol for two weeks. Each patient used two of the bleaching products simultaneously in a side-by-side comparison. RESULTS: The mean onset of tooth whitening was 2.4 +/- 1.7 days. Tooth sensitivity was the most frequent side effect, as 64% of the patients reported tooth sensitivity occurring after 4.8 +/- 4.1 days and lasting for 5.0 +/- 3.8 days. Although intrapatient differences were recorded for the three commercial 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching systems by the patients, there were no statistical differences in the time of onset of subjective tooth whitening and the onset, frequency and duration of tooth sensitivity among the three commercial bleaching systems when compared pairwise or independently (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Selection of which bleaching product to use should be based on the concentration of the active ingredient, the viscosity of the product and other marketing features. Further research is needed to investigate the causes of tooth sensitivity and methods to reduce its severity and frequency. (+info)
The pH of tooth-whitening products.
Tooth whitening products may be in contact with intraoral structures for several hours or they may be used daily to whiten the teeth. Consequently, these products should have a relatively neutral pH to minimize potential damage. This study measured the pH of 26 commercially available tooth-whitening products. The pH of the different whitening products ranged from 3.67 (highly acidic) to 11.13 (highly basic). The dentist-supervised home-bleaching products had a mean pH of 6.48 (range 5.66 to 7.35). The over-the-counter whitening products had a mean pH of 8.22 (range 5.09 to 11.13), and the whitening toothpastes had a mean pH of 6.83 (range 4.22 to 8.35). The 3 in-office bleaching products had a pH between 3.67 and 6.53. One-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the 4 product categories. The most basic pH of all the products tested was 11.13 for the whitening gel of Natural White-Rapid White. The most acidic pH of all products tested was 3.67 for Opalescence Xtra 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleach. The Least-Squares-Means test showed that the over-the-counter category had a pH significantly different from the other categories (p < 0.05). (+info)
Topical fluorides in caries prevention and management: a North American perspective.
A review of evidence-based literature indicates incomplete evidence for the efficacy of most measures currently used for caries prevention, with the exception of fluoride varnishes and the use of fluoride-based interventions for patients with hyposalivation. Not all fluoride agents and treatments are equal. Different fluoride compounds, different vehicles, and vastly different concentrations have been used with different frequencies and durations of application. These variables can influence the clinical outcome with respect to caries prevention and management. The efficacy of topical fluoride in caries prevention depends on a) the concentration of fluoride used, b) the frequency and duration of application, and to a certain extent, c) the specific fluoride compound used. The more concentrated the fluoride and the greater the frequency of application, the greater the caries reduction. Factors besides efficacy, such as practicality, cost, and compliance, influence the clinician's choice of preventive therapy. For noncavitated smooth surface carious lesions in a moderate caries-risk patient, the appropriate fluoride regimen would be semiannual professional topical application of a fluoride varnish containing 5 percent NaF (22,600 ppm of fluoride). In addition, the patient should use twice or thrice daily for at least one minute a fluoridated dentifrice containing NaF, MFP, or SnF2 (1,000-1,500 ppm of fluoride), and once daily for one minute a fluoride mouthrinse containing .05 percent NaF (230 ppm of fluoride). If the noncavitated carious lesion involves a pit or fissure, the application of an occlusal sealant would be the most appropriate preventive therapy. The management of the high caries-risk patient requires the use of several preventive interventions and behavioral modification, besides the use of topical fluorides. For children over six years of age and adults, both office and self-applied topical fluoride treatments are recommended. For office fluoride therapy at the initial visit, a high-concentration agent, either a 1.23 percent F APF gel (12,300 ppm of fluoride) for four minutes in a tray or a 5 percent NaF varnish (22,600 ppm of fluoride), should be applied directly to the teeth four times per year. Self-applied fluoride therapy should consist of the daily five-minute application of 1.1 percent NaF or APF gel (5,000 ppm of fluoride) in a custom-fitted tray. For those who cannot tolerate a tray delivery owing to gagging or nausea, a daily 0.05 percent NaF rinse (230 ppm of fluoride) for 1 minute is a less effective alternative. In addition, the patient should use twice or thrice daily for at least 1 minute a fluoridated dentifrice as described above for treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. In order to avoid unintentional ingestion and the risk of fluorosis in children under six years of age, fluoride rinses and gels should not be used at home. Furthermore, when using a fluoride dentifrice, such children should apply only a pea-size portion on the brush, should be instructed not to eat or swallow the paste, and should expectorate thoroughly after brushing. Toothbrushing should be done under parental supervision. To avoid etching of porcelain crowns and facings, neutral NaF is indicated in preference to APF gels for those patients who have such restorations and are applying the gel daily. The rationale for these recommendations is discussed. Important deficiencies in our knowledge that require further research on topical fluoride therapy in populations with specific needs are identified. (+info)
Dental devices; classification for intraoral devices for snoring and/or obstructive sleep apnea. Final rule.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the intraoral devices for snoring and/or obstructive sleep apnea into class II (special controls). These devices are used to control or treat simple snoring and/or obstructive sleep apnea. This classification is based on the recommendations of the Dental Devices Panel (the Panel), and is being taken to establish sufficient regulatory controls that will provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of these devices. This action is being taken under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the 1976 amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (the SMDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is publishing a notice of availability of the guidance document that will serve as the special control for this final rule. (+info)
Unconventional dentistry: Part IV. Unconventional dental practices and products.
This is the fourth in a series of 5 articles providing a contemporary overview and introduction to unconventional dentistry (UD) and its correlation to unconventional medicine (UM). Several common UD and UM practices are described to familiarize practitioners with a variety of theories, practices, products and treatments that specifically apply to dentistry. This brief review is not intended as an in-depth resource. (+info)
Dispositional motivations and message framing: a test of the congruency hypothesis in college students.
The authors examined the congruency hypothesis that health messages framed to be concordant with dispositional motivations will be most effective in promoting health behaviors. Undergraduate students (N=63) completed a measure of approach/avoidance orientation (behavioral activation/inhibition system) and read a gain- or loss-framed message promoting flossing. Results support the congruency hypothesis: When given a loss-framed message, avoidance-oriented people reported flossing more than approach-oriented people, and when given a gain-framed message, approach-oriented people reported flossing more than avoidance-oriented people. Discussion centers on implications for health interventions and the route by which dispositional motivations affect health behaviors through message framing. (+info)
Control of gingival inflammation in a teenager population using ultrasonic prophylaxis.
Gingival inflammation is clinically characterized by gingival redness, swelling and increased tendency of bleeding of the soft tissue. Bacterial biofilm is the etiological agent. If, at this stage, the bacterial biofilm is removed and appropriate control methods are applied, remission of gingival inflammation occurs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a single session of ultrasonic prophylaxis for the reduction of gingivitis in an adolescent population using the Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI). The study sample consisted of 15 male adolescent students selected at a dentist's office of a public high school. Prior to treatment (baseline), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. The patients then received oral hygiene instructions and ultrasonic prophylaxis. Follow-up exams were made 15 and 30 days after the ultrasonic prophylaxis, again recording PI and BOP. The data were analyzed by the Student's t-test for dependent samples. Correlation analysis between presence of biofilm and bleeding on probing was also made using the Pearson correlation test. There was a statistically significant decrease in the plaque index and bleeding on probing between baseline and examinations at both 15 days and 30 days (p<0.05). However, the difference between the means at 15 and 30 days was statistically similar. The correlation analysis showed correlation between both parameters (p<0.05). The results indicate that a single session of ultrasonic prophylaxis associated to oral hygiene instructions is efficient to reverse gingivitis in adolescents. (+info)
Stem durability testing of interdental brush.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of interdental brush to withstand repeated use and to relate this property to clinically observed fractures of such brushes. The stem durability test was conducted according to ISO (International Standards Organization) standard by using a bending at 90 degrees under a 500-g controlled load (ISO/TC106/SC7/ WG3). Two sizes (ss, m) of each of the five commercially available interdental brushes (D, B, P, I, S) were used. The cycle number at the time of fracture was noted for all interdental brushes. The fractured surfaces of the stem wire following the stem durability test were also observed under a scanning electron microscope. The specimens, when ranked in decreasing order of the number of cycles at which fracture occurred, were D-m, D-ss, B-ss, B-m > P-m, P-ss, I-ss, I-m, S-m, S-ss (P < 0.05). L-type interdental brushes (P-m, P-ss, I-ss, I-m, S-m, and S-ss) showed significantly decreased fracture resistance when compared with straight-type interdental brushes (D-m, D-ss, B-ss, B-m). In all cases, the fracture was found to be of ductile nature. (+info)