(1/170) The root surface in human teeth: a microradiographic study.
In an attempt to clarify the nature of the human cemento-dentinal junction, ground sections of incompletely formed and fully formed extracted teeth were prepared and their histology compared with their microradiographic appearances. The results showed that incompletely formed teeth possess distinctive surface layers outside the granular layer of Tomes. The evidence indicates that these layers are of dentinal origin; their presence during development supports previous explanations by the author of the hyaline layer of Hopewell-Smith and of so-called intermediate cementum. The results also indicate that the granular layer of Tomes does not represent the outer limit of root dentine. The relationship of these surface layers to the definitive cementum which is present in fully formed teeth was studied in both young and older patients. From the results it was concluded that cementum formation begins in the more apical region of the teeth at a time when root formation is well advanced, and that it spreads towards the crown rather than in the generally accepted reverse direction. (+info)
(2/170) Histological and histochemical quantification of root resorption incident to the application of intrusive force to rat molars.
This study was conducted to investigate the nature of root resorption resulting from intrusive forces applied to the rat lower molars, by means of histological and histochemical techniques with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Thirty-eight 13-week-old Wistar strain male rats were used. Intrusive force was created by a fixed appliance which was adjusted to exert an initial force of 50 g for the duration of 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The degree of root resorption and distribution of TRAP positive cells were evaluated. On the root surface, the TRAP positive scores were low in the apical regions. Significant differences in the scores were found in the inter-radicular region of the roots between the experimental and control groups for the 2- and 3-week groups. More active resorption of bone occurred during the experimental period, as denoted by greater TRAP positive scores on the bone than on the root surface. Root resorption scores in the apical root region were larger in the 2- and 3-week groups than in the 1-week group. Significant differences in the root resorption scores were also found between the 1- and 3-week groups in the inter-radicular region, indicating that intrusive force application of a longer duration may lead to a higher frequency of root resorption. It is shown that, irrespective of the level of TRAP positive cells and root resorption scores, the degree of root resorption activity is higher in the apical root region than in the inter-radicular area. These results indicate that cellular cementum may be resorbed more easily because of its richer organic components and low mineralized structure. (+info)
(3/170) Evolution of periodontal regeneration: from the roots' point of view.
Tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal diseases, i.e. bone, cementum and a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), can be restored to some degree. Nevertheless, results are often disappointing. There is a need to develop new paradigms for regenerating periodontal tissues that are based on an understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the development and regeneration of periodontal tissues. As one approach we have developed strategies for maintaining cementoblasts in culture by first determining the gene profile for these cells in situ. Next, cells were immortalized in vitro using SV 40 large T antigen (SV40 Tag) or by using mice containing transgenes enabling cellular immortality in vitro. Cementoblasts in vitro retained expression of genes associated with mineralized tissues, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, that were not linked with periodontal fibroblasts either in situ or in vitro. Further, cementoblasts promoted mineralization in vitro as measured by von Kossa and ex vivo using a severely compromised immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. These cells responded to growth factors by eliciting changes in gene profile and mitogenesis and to osteotropic hormones by evoking changes in gene profile and ability to induce mineral nodule formation in vitro. The ultimate goal of these studies is to provide the knowledge base required for designing improved modalities for use in periodontal regenerative therapies. (+info)
(4/170) Growth factors regulate expression of mineral associated genes in cementoblasts.
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the responsiveness of cells within the periodontal region to specific bioactive agents is important for improving regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of specific growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on cementoblasts in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Osteocalcin (OC) promoter driven SV40 transgenic mice were used to obtain immortalized cementoblasts. Growth factor effects on DNA synthesis were assayed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Northern analysis was used to determine the effects of growth factors on gene expression profile. Effects of growth factors on cementoblast induced biomineralization were determined in vitro (von Kossa stain) and ex vivo (re-implantation of cells in immunodeficient (SCID) mice). RESULTS: All growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis compared to control. Twenty-four hour exposure of cells to PDGF-BB or TGF-beta resulted in a decrease in bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNAs while PDGF-BB also increased osteopontin (OPN) mRNA. Cells exposed to IGF-I for 24 hours exhibited decreased transcripts for OCN and OPN with an upregulation of BSP mRNA noted at 72 hours. In vitro mineralization was inhibited by continuous application of PDGF-BB or TGF-beta, while cells exposed to these factors prior to implantation into SCID mice still promoted biomineralization. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate IGF-I, PDGF-BB, and TGF-beta influence mitogenesis, phenotypic gene expression profile, and biomineralization potential of cementoblasts suggesting that such factors alone or in combination with other agents may provide trigger factors required for regenerating periodontal tissues. (+info)
(5/170) Cell-specific patterns of Cbfa1 mRNA and protein expression in postnatal murine dental tissues.
Cbfa1 (core binding factor alpha 1) is a transcription factor that is a key determinant of the osteoblastic lineage. Recent data showed that Cbfa1 is also highly expressed in early stages of tooth development and is involved in crown morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontoblasts. Here we report the mRNA expression and protein localization of Cbfa1 in the mouse dentition in (later) stages of crown and root development. In addition to osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, dental follicle cells, cementoblasts and periodontal ligament cells, we report also Cbfa1 expression in dental epithelial cells (secretory and maturation ameloblasts) and several non-mineralizing cell types (hair follicles, ducts of salivary glands, and junctional epithelium of the gingiva). (+info)
(6/170) Ultrastructure of cementum and periodontal ligament after continuous intrusion in humans: a transmission electron microscopy study.
An ultrastructural study of the cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL) changes after continuous intrusion with two different and controlled forces in humans was carried out. Twelve first upper premolars, at stage 10 of Nolla, orthodontically indicated for extraction from six patients (mean age 15.3) were used. They were divided into three experimental groups, distributed intra-individually as follows: control (not moved), continuously intruded for 4 weeks with 50 or 100 cN force, utilizing a precise biomechanical model with nickel titanium super-elastic wires (NiTi-SE), which were developed and calibrated individually. The teeth were extracted, fixed, decalcified, and conventionally processed for examination in a Jeol 100 CX II transmission electron microscope. Evident signs of degeneration of cell structures, vascular components, and extracellular matrix (EM) of cementum and PDL were observed in all the intruded teeth, with more severe changes towards an apical direction and in proportion to the magnitude of force applied. Resorptive areas and an irregular root surface of the intruded teeth were noticed, according to the same pattern described above. Concomitant, areas of repair were also revealed in the cementum and PDL although the magnitude of forces remained the same throughout the experimental period. Thus, a reduction of continuous force magnitude should be considered to preserve the integrity of tissues. (+info)
(7/170) Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) gene delivery for application in periodontal tissue engineering.
BACKGROUND: A challenge in the reconstruction of periodontal structures is the targeted delivery of growth-promoting molecules to the tooth root surface. Polypeptide growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulate both cementogenesis and osteogenesis. Recent advances in gene therapy offer the advantage of delivering recombinant proteins to tissues for extended periods of time in vivo. METHODS: Recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding for the PDGF-A gene were constructed to allow delivery of PDGF transgenes to cells. The recombinant adenoviruses were assembled using the viral backbone of Ad2/CMV/EGFP and replacing GFP (reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter [CMV] within adenovirus type 2) with the PDGF-A gene. Root lining cells (cloned cementoblasts) were transduced with Ad2/PDGF-A and evaluated for gene expression, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. PDGF-inducible genes, c-myc and osteopontin, were also evaluated following gene delivery of Ad2/PDGF-A. RESULTS: The results revealed high level transduction of cementoblasts by gene transfer for 7 days as evidenced by flow cytometry and Northern blotting. Cementoblast DNA synthesis and subsequent proliferation were stimulated by Ad2/PDGF-A at levels equal to or greater than continuous rhPDGF-AA application. Strong message for the PDGF-A gene and protein as evidenced by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry was noted. Furthermore, the potent induction of c-myc and osteopontin mRNA was found after PDGF gene delivery to cementoblasts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that gene delivery of platelet-derived growth factor stimulates cementoblast activity that is sustained above that of rhPDGF-AA application. The use of gene therapy as a mode of growth factor delivery offers a novel approach to periodontal tissue engineering. (+info)
(8/170) The developmental biology of cementum.
In conclusion, we have reviewed an extensive literature on early cementogenesis and performed a detailed morphological and molecular analysis to illustrate and verify key issues in the current debate about epithelial and mesenchymal contributions to root cementum. We have demonstrated that prior to cementogenesis, Hertwig's epithelial root sheath disintegrates and dental follicle cells penetrate the epithelial layer to invade the root surface. Our studies confirmed that HERS became disrupted or disintegrated prior to cementum deposition. We visualized how mesenchymal cells from the dental follicle penetrated the HERS bilayer and deposited initial cementum, while immediately adjacent epithelial cells were separated from the root surface by a basal lamina and did not secrete any cementum. Human specimen from the Gottlieb collection indicated that HERS was removed from the root surface prior to cementum deposition. Our in situ hybridization and immolocalization data revealed that both amelogenin mRNAs and enamel proteins were restricted to the crown enamel and were absent from the root surface and from the cervical-most ameloblasts adjacent to the root margin. On Western blots, cementum protein extracts did not cross-react with amelogenin antibodies. Our studies in conjunction with our literature review together confirmed the classical theory of cementum as a dental follicle derived connective tissue that forms subsequent to HERS disintegration. (+info)