Dental treatment of handicapped patients using endotracheal anesthesia.
Dental treatment using endotracheal anesthesia is indicated where acute odontogenic infections, accidental injuries, or multiple caries and periodontitis marginalis require surgical and/or restorative treatment. It is also indicated where it is not possible to use psychological support during local anesthesia or during premedication or analgosedation. Dental treatment of handicapped patients using endotracheal anesthesia is described, along with indication and frequency of such treatment. The state of the dentition is illustrated, along with its relationship to the oral hygiene the handicapped patients receive. The main points of the intraoperative dental procedures and the follow-up of patient care are reported. Postoperative dental or general medical complications have not occurred within the patient population under study. (+info)
Anesthetic considerations of two sisters with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
Anesthetic considerations of 21-mo-old and 4-yr-old sisters with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome during surgical repair of cleft palate and reduction of macroglossia are presented and discussed. This syndrome is characterized by exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, hypoglycemia in infancy, and many other clinical features. This syndrome is also known as exomphalos, macroglossia, and gigantism (EMG) syndrome. Principal problems associated with anesthetic management in this syndrome are hypoglycemia and macroglossia. Careful intraoperative plasma glucose monitoring is particularly important to prevent the neurologic sequelae of unrecognized hypoglycemia. It is expected that airway management would be complicated by the macroglossia, which might cause difficult bag/mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation following the induction of anesthesia and muscle paralysis, so preparations for airway difficulty (e.g., awake vocal cord inspection) should be considered before induction. A nasopharyngeal airway is useful in relieving postoperative airway obstruction. (+info)
General anesthesia for disabled patients in dental practice.
We reviewed the cases of 91 consecutive patients with disabilities who required general anesthesia at a tertiary referral center for dental treatment with a view to determining the factors that create difficulties in the anesthetic management. The more important of these are the special difficulties involved in making preoperative assessments of these patients and the difficulty in establishing monitoring. Other difficulties in anesthesia for these patients involve problems with gaining intravenous access, problems in determining when there has been adequate recovery from anesthesia, and problems in determining the degree of discomfort or pain the patients experience after dental treatment. Another potential hazard in this group of patients is the risk of drug interactions. We emphasize the need to train anesthetists in the care of disabled patients. (+info)
Behaviour management needs for the orthodontic treatment of children with disabilities.
A displeasing dental appearance may have a significant emotional impact on an individual's well being. Although malocclusions occur more often in physically and/or mentally handicapped children than in normal children, the most severely handicapped patients are those least likely to receive orthodontic treatment. This investigation studied the modes of behaviour management used in the orthodontic treatment of disabled children, and the preferred criteria. The files of 49 disabled children were retrospectively evaluated. Two classification systems, the Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale (FBRS), and that of Owen and Graber were found to be unsuitable for determining the appropriate treatment modality. Five specific factors, frequently seen in disabled children, gag reflex, drooling, uncontrollable movements, inability to remain still, and the need for additional procedures, were graded and a scoring system was devised to include these factors within the assessment. This scoring system may be used to evaluate new patients and to assist in the choice of the appropriate behavioural management mode. (+info)
Orthodontic treatment for disabled children: motivation, expectation, and satisfaction.
This study was designed to measure motivation for and expectations of proposed orthodontic treatment for disabled children, and to examine the level of satisfaction with the results of this treatment, in the eyes of the parents. A two-part questionnaire was sent to the parents of consecutively treated disabled children. The first part was sent to the parents of all the patients treated, while the second was only sent to those whose child had completed treatment. The response rate was over 90 per cent. The parents expected improvement in the child's appearance with a concomitant improvement in his/her social acceptance. These expectations from the treatment were found to be exaggerated, with only a minority of the parents claiming a marked improvement in their child's everyday functioning (four out of 27), or a significant social improvement (six out of 27). Nevertheless, most of the parents (26 out of 27) were satisfied with the treatment, and reported that 17 of the children themselves, who were aware of a change, considered it an improvement. A majority of the children understood the reasons for treatment, in the most general of terms. Close friends regarded treatment results as positive (20 out of 27). With only one exception, the parents stated that they would repeat the procedure, given the same set of circumstances, and all of them would recommend it for other disabled children. It may be concluded that even though orthodontic treatment in this groups of patients does not yield the desired social influence, the individual benefits from the treatment are worthwhile. (+info)
Safe orthodontic bonding for children with disabilities during general anaesthesia.
General anaesthesia (GA) may be employed to overcome management difficulties in the orthodontic treatment of disabled children. This report introduces the application of a rubber dam as a useful aid for a high quality bonding and as an effective safeguard in bonding of brackets in general anaesthesia, in the handicapped in particular. GA was used in 12 patients, of a cohort of 49 disabled patients, to facilitate the placing of the fixed appliance. The first seven were bonded solely with the use of an oropharyngeal pack and a high velocity suction to prevent aspiration, and the last five additionally underwent placement of a rubber dam. The use of a rubber dam to facilitate the safe and reliable bonding of orthodontic brackets in handicapped children under general anaesthesia is highly recommended. (+info)
Orthodontic treatment for disabled children--a survey of patient and appliance management.
The objective of this article was to investigate the management problems encountered during the orthodontic treatment of children with disability, and took the form of a retrospective analysis. The investigation took place at the Center for the Treatment of Cranio-facial Disorders, Department of Orthodontics, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel, between years 1989 and 1997. The subjects were the 37 children with mental and/or physical disability whose orthodontic treatment was either completed or nearly completed, whose parents were given a questionnaire. Thirty-five patients responded with a mean age of 13 years (range 7-21 years), representing 94.6 per cent of the sample. Most of the patients (94.3 per cent) were able to conclude the orthodontic treatment and 91.4 per cent of the parents reported that the added responsibilities were either negligible or bearable. In 63 per cent of the children, compliance increased during the treatment as anxiety decreased. The problems encountered with fixed appliances were generally more severe than with removable appliances. The two major obstacles were attendance at frequent and regular intervals (37.1 per cent) and maintaining an appropriate level of oral hygiene (37.1 per cent). Children with a disability are able and willing to undergo orthodontic treatment. Recommendations intended to facilitate management are presented. (+info)
The face of a child: children's oral health and dental education.
Dental care is the most common unmet health care need of children. Those at increased risk for problems with oral health and access to care are from poor or minority families, lack health insurance, or have special health care needs. These factors place more than 52 percent of children at risk for untreated oral disease. Measures of access and parental report indicate unmet oral health needs, but do not provide guidance as to the nature of children's oral health needs. Children's oral health needs can be predicted from their developmental changes and position in the life span. their dependency and environmental context, and current demographic changes. Specific gaps in education include training of general dentists to care for infants and young children and those with special health care needs, as well as training of pediatric providers and other professionals caring for children in oral health promotion and disease prevention. Educational focus on the technical aspects of dentistry leaves little time for important interdisciplinary health and/or social issues. It will not be possible to address these training gaps without further integration of dentistry with medicine and other health professions. Children's oral health care is the shared moral responsibility of dental and other professionals working with children, parents, and society. Academic dental centers hold in trust the training of oral health professionals for society and have a special responsibility to train future professionals to meet children's needs. Leadership in this area is urgently needed. (+info)