Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion.
Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained. (+info)
Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding.
New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys. (+info)
Intra-oral temperature variation over 24 hours.
This study aimed to investigate temperature variation at archwire sites adjacent to the maxillary right central incisor and first premolar, its correlation with ambient temperature, and the influence of inter-racial variation. Twenty young adult male subjects were randomly selected (13 Asian, seven Caucasian). Thermocouples were attached to the labial archwire component of custom-made orthodontic retainers at the two intra-oral sites. A third thermocouple measured ambient temperature. A data-logger recorded temperatures at 5-second intervals over a 24-hour period. Temperatures ranged from 5.6 to 58.5 degrees C at the incisor and from 7.9 to 54 degrees C at the premolar, with medians of 34.9 degrees C and 35.6 degrees C, respectively. Ambient temperature correlated poorly with the intra-oral temperatures. The Asian and Caucasian groups had significantly different temperature distributions. On average during the 24-hour period, temperatures at the incisor site were in the range of 33-37 degrees C for 79 per cent of the time, below it for 20 per cent, and above it for only 1 per cent of the time. Corresponding figures for the premolar site were 92, 6, and 2 per cent. At both archwire sites the most frequent temperatures were in the range of 35-36 degrees C. The data presented demonstrate that the temperature at sites on an archwire in situ varies considerably over a 24-hour period and that racial differences may exist. This information should be considered during the manufacture and use of temperature-sensitive orthodontic materials, in particular nickel-titanium archwires and springs. (+info)
Distortion of metallic orthodontic brackets after clinical use and debond by two methods.
The objective of this paper was to compare distortion of the tie wings and bases of metallic orthodontic brackets following clinical use and after debond by either of two methods, and took the form of a prospective random control trial. Five-hundred-and-seven brackets were debonded using either bracket removing pliers or a lift off debonding instrument (LODI). By a system of random allocation contralateral opposing quadrants were debonded with a 0.019 x 0.025-inch archwire either in place or removed. After debond brackets were tested for slot closure by the fit of rectangular test wires from 0.016 x 0.022 to 0.021 x 0.025 inch in size. The LODI produced few slot closures sufficient to affect the fit of all but the largest test wire. Bracket removing pliers used after removal of the archwire produced significantly greater numbers of distorted brackets in response to testing with all but the largest wire. With the 0.021 x 0.025 inch wire in place the presence or absence of the archwire at the time of debond made no difference to the number of slot closures. Ten per cent of the brackets debonded using bracket removing pliers had distorted bases, no base damage was produced by the LODI. The use of bracket removing pliers at debond caused significantly more slot closures than use of the LODI. When bracket removing pliers are used the archwire should be left in place at the time of debond since this reduces the number of distortions. (+info)
A laboratory investigation to compare enamel preparation by sandblasting or acid etching prior to bracket bonding.
A laboratory investigation to compare the mean shear debonding force and mode of bond failure of metallic brackets bonded to sandblasted and acid-etched enamel is described. The buccal surfaces of 30 extracted human premolars were sandblasted for 5 seconds with 50 mu alumina and the buccal surfaces of a further 30 human premolars were etched with 37 per cent phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. Following storage for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, shear debonding force was measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/minute. Mean shear debonding force was significantly lower for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel compared to acid etched enamel (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that at a given stress the probability of failure was significantly greater for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel. Brackets bonded to etched enamel showed a mixed mode of bond failure whereas following sandblasting, failure was adhesive at the enamel/composite interface (P < 0.01). (+info)
Rapid palatal expansion in treatment of Class II malocclusions.
A technique which combines the use of rapid maxillary expansion and fixed appliance in growing patients, is presented. The treatment in three patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and different skeletal patterns is described, and relative advantages highlighted. (+info)
An ex-vivo investigation into the effect of bracket displacement on the resistance to sliding.
This ex-vivo study investigated the effect that repeated bracket displacement has on sliding friction and the magnitude of bracket displacement, and hence tooth movement, required to release bracket/archwire binding. The design consisted of an ex-vivo laboratory study. A jig was designed that allowed repeated displacement of a bracket to occur, while the resistance to sliding (friction) was measured using an Instron universal testing machine. One type of stainless steel bracket was used in conjunction with four archwire types (0.016-inch stainless steel, 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, 0.021 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, 0.019 x 0.025-inch beta-titanium) and four magnitudes of displacement. Repeated bracket displacement has a significant effect on the sliding resistance at the bracket/archwire interface (P < 0.001). The reduction in sliding resistance noted with displacement depended on the archwire. Over the range of displacements tested, there was an 85 and 80 per cent reduction associated with 0.021 x 0.025-inch and 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, respectively. For 0.019 x 0.025-inch beta-titanium and 0.016-inch stainless steel, these reductions were 27 and 19 per cent, respectively. The importance of true friction, given the likelihood of bracket and/or archwire displacements in vivo, may be lessened. (+info)
Effects on tooth movement of force delivery from nickel-titanium archwires.
The aim of this project was to determine the in vivo effects of tooth movement with nickel-titanium archwires on the periodontium during the early stages of orthodontic treatment. The extent of tooth movement, severity of gingival inflammation, pocket probing depth, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow, and the amount of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the GCF of one maxillary canine in each of 33 patients treated with a pre-adjusted appliance were measured before and at four stages during the first 22 weeks of treatment. The methods involved the use of a reflex metrograph to determine the type of tooth movement and electrophoresis to quantitate the CS in the GCF. It was found that GCF flow increased after 4 weeks of tooth movement whereas the increase in the amount of CS in the GCF, which is taken to be indicative of periodontal tissue turnover, occurred at the later stage of 10 weeks. Teeth which showed the greatest amount of tooth movement continued to express large amounts of CS in large volumes of GCF until 22 weeks, whilst the CS levels in those teeth moving to a smaller extent declined. These data suggest that nickel-titanium archwires may produce a super-elastic plateau effect in vivo on canine teeth, which are initially displaced from the arch such that large amounts of tooth movement occur in the first 22 weeks of treatment. (+info)