Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery units could reduce the incidence of unplanned home deliveries. (+info)
Reducing risk by improving standards of intrapartum fetal care.
Confidential Enquiries into Stillbirths and Deaths in Infancy (CESDI) have pointed to a high frequency of suboptimal intrapartum fetal care of a kind that, in the event of an adverse outcome, is hard to defend in court. In an effort to minimize liability, various strategies were applied in a district hospital labour ward--guidelines, cyclical audit, monthly feedback meetings and training sessions in cardiotocography (CTG). The effects of these interventions on quality of care was assessed by use of the CESDI system in all babies born with an Apgar score of 4 or less at 1 min and/or 7 or less at 5 min. 540 babies (4.3%) had low Apgar scores, and neither the percentage nor gestational age differed significantly between audit periods. In the baseline audit, care was judged suboptimal (grade II/III) in 14 (74%) of 19 cases, and in the next four periods it was 23%, 27%, 27% and 32%. In the latest audit period, after further educational interventions, it was 9%. Many of the failures to recognize or act on abnormal events were related to CTG interpretation. After the interventions there was a significant increase in cord blood pH measurement. There were no differences between audit periods in the proportion of babies with cord pH < 7.2. These results indicate that substantial improvements in quality of intrapartum care can be achieved by a programme of clinical risk management. (+info)
Use of capnography in the delivery room for assessment of endotracheal tube placement.
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether end-tidal CO(2) (ETCO(2)) monitoring allows for more rapid discrimination of tracheal versus esophageal intubation than standard clinical assessment during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. STUDY DESIGN: Endotracheal tube (ETT) placement was assessed using either a hand-held monitor that displayed graphic and quantitative ETCO(2) by an investigator not involved in the resuscitation, or using clinical parameters by the resuscitation team unaware of the ETCO(2) data. The time differences between ETCO(2) and clinical determinations of ETT placement were compared. RESULTS: Capnography correctly identified all 16 tracheal and 11 esophageal intubations performed on 16 study infants. The median times (and range) in seconds required for capnographic and clinical determination of tracheal intubation were 9 (4 to 26) vs. 35 (18 to 70), p<.001, and for esophageal intubation were 9 (4 to 17) vs. 30 (25 to 111), p=.001. CONCLUSION: Capnography allowed more rapid determination of both tracheal and unintended esophageal intubation than clinical assessment. (+info)
Outcomes of planned home births versus planned hospital births after regulation of midwifery in British Columbia.
BACKGROUND: The choice to give birth at home with a regulated midwife in attendance became available to expectant women in British Columbia in 1998. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of home birth by comparing perinatal outcomes for planned home births attended by regulated midwives with those for planned hospital births. METHODS: We compared the outcomes of 862 planned home births attended by midwives with those of planned hospital births attended by either midwives (n = 571) or physicians (n = 743). Comparison subjects who were similar in their obstetric risk status were selected from hospitals in which the midwives who were conducting the home births had hospital privileges. Our study population included all home births that occurred between Jan. 1, 1998, and Dec. 31, 1999. RESULTS: Women who gave birth at home attended by a midwife had fewer procedures during labour compared with women who gave birth in hospital attended by a physician. After adjustment for maternal age, lone parent status, income quintile, use of any versus no substances and parity, women in the home birth group were less likely to have epidural analgesia (odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.27), be induced, have their labours augmented with oxytocin or prostaglandins, or have an episiotomy. Comparison of home births with hospital births attended by a midwife showed very similar and equally significant differences. The adjusted odds ratio for cesarean section in the home birth group compared with physician-attended hospital births was 0.3 (95% CI 0.22-0.43). Rates of perinatal mortality, 5-minute Apgar scores, meconium aspiration syndrome or need for transfer to a different hospital for specialized newborn care were very similar for the home birth group and for births in hospital attended by a physician. The adjusted odds ratio for Apgar scores lower than 7 at 5 minutes in the home birth group compared with physician-attended hospital births was 0.84 (95% CI 0.32-2.19). INTERPRETATION: There was no increased maternal or neonatal risk associated with planned home birth under the care of a regulated midwife. The rates of some adverse outcomes were too low for us to draw statistical comparisons, and ongoing evaluation of home birth is warranted. (+info)
Questioning the indicators of need for obstetric care.
The difficulties in measuring maternal mortality have led to a shift in emphasis from indicators of health to indicators of use of health care services. Furthermore, the recognition that some women need specialist obstetric care to prevent maternal death has led to the search for indicators measuring the met need for obstetric care. Although intuitively appealing, the conceptualization and definition of the need for obstetric care is far from straightforward, and there is relatively little experience so far in the use and interpretation of indicators of service use or need for obstetric care. In this paper we review indicators of service use and need for obstetric care, and briefly discuss data collection issues. (+info)
Ectopic pregnancy in Conakry, Guinea.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in hospitals in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, West Africa. Data on EP incidence in developing countries are rare and often out of date, particularly in Africa. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out, examining all cases of EP registered in the medical files of two referral maternity units at the Donka and Ignace Deen university hospitals between 1995 and 1999. FINDINGS: The EP incidence at the two maternity units increased from 0.41% to 1.5% of annual deliveries over this period. Haemoperitoneum was observed in most women, with tubal rupture in 93%; only 6 women received conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the hospital-based incidence of EP per delivery has increased over the last decade in this West African capital, and that health professionals and public health officials in developing countries, especially those in Africa, should consider EP as a major obstetric problem for maternal morbidity. (+info)
Cross sectional, community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal.
OBJECTIVE: To determine home based newborn care practices in rural Nepal in order to inform strategies to improve neonatal outcome. DESIGN: Cross sectional, retrospective study using structured interviews. SETTING: Makwanpur district, Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: 5411 married women aged 15 to 49 years who had given birth to a live baby in the past year. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Attendance at delivery, hygiene, thermal care, and early feeding practices. RESULTS: 4893 (90%) women gave birth at home. Attendance at delivery by skilled government health workers was low (334, 6%), as was attendance by traditional birth attendants (267, 5%). Only 461 (8%) women had used a clean home delivery kit, and about half of attendants had washed their hands. Only 3482 (64%) newborn infants had been wrapped within half an hour of birth, and 4992 (92%) had been bathed within the first hour. 99% (5362) of babies were breast fed, 91% (4939) within six hours of birth. Practices with respect to colostrum and prelacteals were not a cause for anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion interventions most likely to improve newborn health in this setting include increasing attendance at delivery by skilled service providers, improving information for families about basic perinatal care, promotion of clean delivery practices, early cord cutting and wrapping of the baby, and avoidance of early bathing. (+info)
Early bubble CPAP and outcomes in ELBW preterm infants.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether the introduction of early bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) results in improved respiratory outcomes in extremely low birth-weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Outcomes of all infants between 401 and 1000 g born in a level 3 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) between July 2000 and October 2001 (period 2) were compared using historical controls (period 1). Early bubble (CPAP) was prospectively introduced in the NICU during period 1. Univariate and adjusted comparisons were made across time periods. RESULTS: Delivery room intubations, days on mechanical ventilation and use of postnatal steroids decreased (p<0.001) in period 2, while mean days on CPAP, number of babies on CPAP at 24 hours (p<0.001) and mean weight at 36 weeks corrected gestation also increased (p<0.05) after introduction of early bubble CPAP. CONCLUSIONS: Early bubble CPAP reduced delivery room intubations, days on mechanical ventilation, postnatal steroid use and was associated with increased postnatal weight gain with no increased complications. (+info)