A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant. (+info)
Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome.
PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved. (+info)
Down-regulation models and modeling of testosterone production induced by recombinant human choriogonadotropin.
Chorionic gonadotropin (CG) is a glycoprotein hormone, whose action is mediated by the luteinizing hormone/CG receptor. Testosterone concentrations from six pituitary-desensitized, healthy male volunteers were obtained after four different administrations of recombinant-human CG (rhCG). We present a modeling study to provide a possible explanation for the observations that increased exposure to rhCG induces higher and then lower testosterone concentrations and that marked rebound effects are observed at the end of repeated administration of rhCG. We used semimechanistic models (in which flexible functions represent unknown parts of the models) to identify the relationship of rhCG concentrations to the testosterone levels. Based on the results obtained with the semimechanistic models, different mechanistic down-regulation models were devised and tested. The final model uses a one-compartment model to describe the endogenous production rate of testosterone; rhCG affects the production rate with a mechanism consistent with a two-site binding site, with effect proportional to one-site bound concentration. The modeling results indicate that when rhCG concentration increases, the testosterone production rate increases to 45 times the baseline value. However, at an rhCG concentration of more than about 30 IU/liter, the production rate decreases. Simulations showed that both dose and dosing interval profoundly influence testosterone response to rhCG. (+info)
Use of long-acting depot progestogen in domililiary family planning.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate injections have been used as a long-term contraceptive by the domiciliary family planning service in Glasgow. The injections were particularly useful in women with a high risk of becoming pregnant and in whom oral or intrauterine contraception had failed or was unacceptable. The optimum dose was 200 mg every 15-16 weeks. It was accepted by an increasing proportion of women, only 12 out of 162 discontinuing because of side effects. Continuation rates compared favourably with those for the pill, but less well than those for intrauterine contraceptive devices. The theoretical hazards should be weighed against the positive good resulting from controlled fertility in domiciliary patients. (+info)
A comparison of three gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues in an in-vitro fertilization programme: a prospective randomized study.
The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) has resulted in improved pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. Traditionally, short-acting analogues have been employed because of concerns over long-acting depot preparations causing profound suppression and luteal phase defects adversely affecting pregnancy and miscarriage rates. We randomized 60 IVF patients to receive a short-acting GnRHa, nafarelin or buserelin, or to receive a depot formulation, leuprorelin, all commenced in the early follicular phase and compared their effects on hormonal suppression and clinical outcome. We found that on day 15 of administration there was a significant difference in the suppression of oestradiol from initial concentrations, when patients on buserelin were compared with patients on nafarelin or leuprorelin (54 versus 72 and 65%; P < 0.05) and also in the number of patients satisfactorily suppressed, (80 versus 90 and 90%; P < 0.05), though there were no differences between the analogues by day 21. Similarly there was no difference in hormonal suppression during the stimulation phase or in implantation, pregnancy or miscarriage rates in comparing the three agonists. We conclude that with nafarelin and leuprorelin, stimulation with gonadotrophins may begin after 2 weeks of suppression and that long-acting GnRHa are as effective as short-acting analogues with no detrimental effects on the luteal phase. (+info)
A cortisol suppression dose-response comparison of budesonide in controlled ileal release capsules with prednisolone.
AIM: To assess the systemic effect of oral budesonide, given as Entocort controlled ileal release capsules, over a dose range of 3-15 mg/day, compared with that of a moderate dose (20 mg/day) of prednisolone. METHODS: Twenty four healthy subjects were given 3, 9 or 15 mg budesonide or 20 mg prednisolone once daily, or 4.5 mg budesonide b.d., or placebo for 5 days in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. The area under the curve (AUC) of plasma cortisol concentration and the amount of cortisol excreted in the urine were monitored. RESULTS: Both plasma and urine cortisol suppression showed a dose-response for the daily doses of budesonide. Prednisolone, 20 mg, suppressed plasma cortisol (AUC) statistically significantly more than 15 mg budesonide (P = 0.014), and 3 mg budesonide statistically significantly more than placebo (P = 0.010). No difference in AUC was detected between 9 mg and 4.5 mg budesonide b.d. Similar results for budesonide vs. placebo were obtained from urine cortisol excretion data. However, prednisolone affected urine cortisol less than it affected plasma cortisol. CONCLUSION: After 5 days of administration, budesonide controlled ileal release capsules, in both clinical (9 mg/day) and high doses (15 mg/day), affected plasma cortisol less than a moderate (20 mg/day) dose of prednisolone. (+info)
Is maintenance therapy always necessary for patients with ulcerative colitis in remission?
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of sulphasalazine and mesalazine in preventing relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis is well known. It is less clear how long such maintenance should be continued, and if the duration of disease remission is a factor that affects the risk of recurrence. AIM: To determine whether the duration of disease remission affects the relapse rate, by comparing the efficacy of a delayed-release mesalazine (Asacol, Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy) against placebo in patients with ulcerative colitis with short- and long-duration of disease remission. METHODS: 112 patients (66 male, 46 female, mean age 35 years), with intermittent chronic ulcerative colitis in clinical, endoscopic and histological remission with sulphasalazine or mesalazine for at least 1 year, were included in the study. Assuming that a lower duration of remission might be associated with a higher relapse rate, the patients were stratified according to the length of their disease remission, prior to randomization into Group A (Asacol 26, placebo 35) in remission from 1 to 2 years, or Group B (Asacol 28, placebo 23) in remission for over 2 years, median 4 years. Patients were treated daily with oral Asacol 1.2 g vs. placebo, for a follow-up period of 1 year. RESULTS: We employed an intention-to-treat analysis. In Group A, whilst no difference was found between the two treatments after 6 months, mesalazine was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing relapse at 12 months [Asacol 6/26 (23%), placebo 17/35 (49%), P = 0.035, 95% Cl: 48-2.3%]. In contrast, in Group B no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatments, either at 6 or 12 months [Asacol 5/28 (18%), placebo 6/23 (26%), P = 0.35, 95% Cl: 31-14%] of follow-up. Patients in group B were older, and had the disease and remission duration for longer, than those in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: Mesalazine prophylaxis is necessary for the prevention of relapse by patients with ulcerative colitis in remission for less than 2 years, but this study casts doubt over whether continuous maintenance treatment is necessary in patients with prolonged clinical, endoscopic and histological remission, who are at very low risk of relapse. (+info)
Generic drug product equivalence: current status.
This activity is designed for healthcare professionals involved in the selection of multisource drug products. GOAL: To understand the basis for approval of generic drug products by the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the criteria employed by the Food and Drug Administration to approve generic drug products. 2. Discuss controversial issues that have been raised relative to generic drug products. 3. Identify narrow therapeutic index drugs. 4. Describe the different types of bioequivalence studies that are required by the Food and Drug Administration. 5. Discuss the responsibilities underlying the selection of multisource drug products by healthcare professionals. (+info)