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(1/430) Perspectives from micronutrient malnutrition elimination/eradication programmes.

Micronutrient malnutrition cannot be eradicated, but the elimination and control of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies and their health-related consequences as public health problems are currently the targets of global programmes. Remarkable progress is occurring in the control of goitre and xerophthalmia, but iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) has been less responsive to prevention and control efforts. Subclinical consequences of micronutrient deficiencies, i.e. "hidden hunger", include compromised immune functions that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development and growth, and reduced reproductive and work capacity and performance. The implications are obvious for human health and national and global economic and social development. Mixes of affordable interventions are available which, when appropriately adapted to resource availability and context, are proven to be effective. These include both food-based interventions, particularly fortification programmes, such as salt iodization, and use of concentrated micronutrient supplements. A mix of accompanying programmes for infection control, community participation, including education, communication and information exchange, and private sector involvement are lessons learned for overcoming deterrents and sustaining progress towards elimination.  (+info)

(2/430) Candidate noninfectious disease conditions.

Important micronutrient deficiencies in at-risk populations can be addressed simultaneously with programmatically cost-effective results. Because of the interaction between many micronutrients, this would also be biologically effective. With adequate investment and political support, the chances of eliminating iodine deficiency as a problem in women of reproductive age and young children and of eliminating vitamin A deficiency as a problem in young children in the future are high. To eliminate iron deficiency and folic-acid-dependent neural tube defects (FADNTDs) in low-income populations, a new set of approaches will have to be developed. These same approaches, if successful, could be used to tackle other important micronutrient deficiencies.  (+info)

(3/430) Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor attenuates intestinal damage induced by zinc deficiency in rats.

A nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), was given to zinc-deficient (ZD) rats to determine whether it prevents the intestinal damage usually observed under these conditions. Weanling male rats were given free access to a ZD diet (2 mg zinc/kg), whereas control rats including pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum consumption (AL) groups were given a zinc-supplemented (50.8 mg zinc/kg) diet for 4 wk. Half of the ZD rats received L-NAME (0.3 g/L in drinking water) for 3 wk starting at the wk 2 of the deficient period. Plasma zinc concentration in ZD rats was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AL and PF rats. Administration of L-NAME did not alter this concentration. Intestinal zinc concentration did not differ among groups. However, metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA level was significantly lower in the intestine of ZD rats than in AL or PF rats. Treatment of ZD rats with L-NAME did not affect this level. Intestinal microvascular permeability evaluated by Evans blue showed significantly higher extravasation in ZD rats than in AL rats, whereas L-NAME administration inhibited the extravasation. Expression of inducible NOS mRNA was observed in intestine of ZD but not of AL or PF rats, and there was no significant difference between ZD rats, regardless of L-NAME treatment. The activity ratio of inducible NOS to total NOS in ZD rats not receiving L-NAME was significantly higher than that in AL rats or ZD rats treated with L-NAME (P < 0.05). The number of apoptotic-positive and goblet cells in intestinal villi was significantly higher in ZD rats compared with AL or PF rats. L-NAME administration in ZD rats reversed this effect. These results indicate that inhibition of NOS ameliorates zinc deficiency-induced intestinal damage in rats.  (+info)

(4/430) Decreased plasma membrane thiol concentration is associated with increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in zinc-deficient rats.

Zinc deficiency leads to pathological signs that are related to impaired function of plasma membrane proteins. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dietary zinc status on the sulfhydryl (SH) content of erythrocyte plasma membranes and erythrocyte function. Three experiments were performed. In the first, immature male rats were fed for 21 d either a low-zinc (<1.0 mg/kg) diet free choice (-ZnAL), an adequate-zinc (100 mg/kg) diet free choice (+ZnAL), or the adequate-zinc diet limited to the intake of -ZnAL pair-mates (+ZnPF). Tail blood was sampled to measure osmotic fragility and SH concentration of erythrocyte membrane proteins. The zinc-deficient rats were then repleted for 2 d and erythrocytes assayed for fragility and SH content. In the second experiment blood was sampled at 3-d intervals to determine the time course of change in fragility and SH concentration. In the third experiment the SH concentration of erythrocyte band 3 protein and the binding of zinc to isolated plasma membranes were measured. SH concentration decreased from approximately 75 nmol/mg protein to 68 nmol/mg protein during 21 d of depletion and returned to control level within 2 d of repletion. There was an inverse relationship between osmotic fragility and SH concentration of erythrocyte membrane proteins. Maximal decrease in SH occurred within 6 d of consuming the low-zinc diet. The SH content of band 3 protein isolated from deficient rats was also significantly lower than that of pair-fed controls (45 vs. 51 nmol/mg protein). The zinc-binding affinity of plasma membrane proteins tended to be decreased by zinc deficiency. In summary, low-zinc status lowers the plasma membrane SH concentration, and the decreased reducing potential is inversely related to osmotic fragility, and presumably, with impaired volume recovery of erythrocytes.  (+info)

(5/430) Abnormalities of zinc and copper during total parenteral nutrition.

Changes in serum zinc and copper levels were studied in 19 tumor bearing patients undergoing parenteral nutrition (TPN) for five to 42 days. Before initiation of intravenous feeding mean serum zinc and copper concentrations were within normal limits but during TPN levels decreased significantly below those measured prior to parenteral nutrition. During TPN nitrogen, zinc, and copper intake, urinary output and serum levels were studied prospectively in nine of these patients. These nine patients exhibited positive nitrogen retention based upon urinary nitrogen excretion, but elevated urinary zinc and copper excretion and lowered serum zinc and copper concentrations. Neither blood administration nor limited oral intake was consistently able to maintain normal serum levels of zinc or copper. Zinc and copper supplementation of hyperalimentation fluids in four patients studied for five to 16 days was successful in increasing serum zinc and copper levels in only two. The data obtained suggest that patients undergoing parenteral nutrition may require supplementation of zinc and copper to prevent deficiencies of these elements.  (+info)

(6/430) Nutritionally induced anovulation in beef heifers: ovarian and endocrine function preceding cessation of ovulation.

Angus x Hereford heifers were used to determine endocrine and ovarian function preceding nutritionally induced anovulation. Six heifers were fed to maintain body condition score (M), and 12 heifers were fed a restricted diet (R) until they became anovulatory. Starting on d 13 of an estrous cycle, heifers were given PGF2alpha every 16 d thereafter to synchronize and maintain 16 d estrous cycles. Ovarian structures of M and R heifers were monitored by ultrasonography daily from d 8 to ovulation (d 1 of the subsequent cycle) until R heifers became anovulatory. Concentrations of LH and FSH were quantified in serum samples collected every 10 min for 8 h on d 2 and 15 (48 h after PGF2alpha), and estradiol and IGF-I were quantified in daily plasma samples from d 8 to 16 during the last ovulatory cycle (Cycle -2) and the subsequent anovulatory cycle (Cycle -1). During the last two cycles before anovulation, M heifers had 50% larger (P < .0001) ovulatory follicles than R heifers and 61% greater (P < .0001) growth rate of the ovulatory follicles. There was a treatment x cycle x day effect (P < .001) for concentrations of estradiol. The preovulatory increase in estradiol occurred in the R and M heifers during Cycle -2 but only in M heifers during Cycle -1. A treatment x cycle x day effect (P < .05) influenced LH concentrations. During Cycle -2, LH concentrations were similar for M and R heifers, but during Cycle -1, M heifers had greater LH concentrations than did R heifers. Concentrations of FSH were greater (P < .05) in R than M heifers after induced luteolysis when R heifers failed to ovulate. There was a treatment x cycle interaction (P < .05) for IGF-I concentrations, and M heifers had 4.7- and 8.6-fold greater IGF-I concentrations than did R heifers during Cycle -2 and -1, respectively. We conclude that growth rate and diameter of the ovulatory follicle, and concentrations of LH, estradiol, and IGF-I are reduced before the onset of nutritionally induced anovulation in beef heifers.  (+info)

(7/430) Effect of 6 months of GH treatment on myosin heavy chain composition in GH-deficient patients.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of GH on myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition, physical fitness and body composition in GH-deficient (GHD) patients. DESIGN: Twenty-two GHD patients were randomized in a double blind manner and half were treated with recombinant human GH (rhGH) and half were treated with placebo for 6 months. Twelve age-matched controls were also included in the study. METHODS: MHC isoform composition in biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle was determined using SDS-PAGE. Physical fitness was determined on a bicycle ergometer and body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: More MHC IIX (28.9 +/- 4.1% and 10.0 +/- 3.1% in GHD and controls respectively (means +/- S.E.M.)) and less MHC I (36.2 +/- 2.4% and 51.7 +/- 3.9% in GHD and controls respectively (means +/- S.E.M.)) were present in the GHD patients compared with the controls. No significant difference in the amount of MHC IIA was detected. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between variables. There were no significant relationships between the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or the body composition and the MHC composition. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) per kg body weight (BW) (litres/min per kg) correlated significantly with the amount of MHC I (r=0.60) and MHC IIX (r=-0.72) but not with the amount of MHC IIA (r=0.35). Treatment of GHD patients with rhGH for 6 months increased the concentration of IGF-I, lean body mass and decreased fat mass but had no effect on MHC composition and physical fitness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a major part of the differences in MHC composition between GHD patients and age-matched controls can be explained by variation in physical fitness. The severity of the GHD and the body composition does not seem to be important for the MHC composition. Furthermore, treatment with GH for 6 months does not affect MHC composition in GHD patients.  (+info)

(8/430) Sonomorphologic evaluation of goiter in an iodine deficiency area in the Ivory Coast.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the extent of thyroid abnormalities in a remote iodine-deficient area of the Ivory Coast. METHODS: Ultrasonography was used in detecting the presence of goiter. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of goiter were 64.7% among females and 53.3% among males. In children aged 6 to 15 years (n = 314), the prevalence of goiter was 62% regardless of sex. Thyroid volume increased steadily with age, with significantly larger goiters in women 25 years and older. Frequency of cysts and calcifications did not correlate with sex. CONCLUSIONS: Especially in developing countries, prophylaxis of iodine deficiency disorders must be improved in iodine-deficient areas to prevent substantial morbidity, which is more severe in women and elderly persons.  (+info)