Karyotype identity of two subspecies of Eld's deer [Cervus eldi (Cervinae, Artiodactyla)] and its consequences for conservation. (65/1110)

Among the three subspecies generally recognized within the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi)--C. e. eldi, C. e. thamin, and C. e. siamensis--C. e. siamensis is considered to be particularly endangered following its disappearance from a major portion of its original range. The only captive breeding population of this subspecies is in the zoological parks at the Paris Museum of Natural History. Taking into account its low effective population size (Ne = 7) and the increasing levels of inbreeding, the continued breeding of this "micropopulation" in isolation from closely related subspecies and in particular from C. e. thamin, which is much more common in zoos as well as in the nature, is questioned. As an initial step in determining if crosses between these subspecies could be performed without risk of outbreeding depression due, in part, to gross differences in their karyotypes, a comparative chromosome banding analysis (RBG-bands) of C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin was undertaken. No chromosomal differences were identified between the taxa at the level of resolution obtained. The study suggests that, at least from a karyotypic perspective, no obvious differences delimit the two subspecies, and hybridization between endangered C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin is not likely to lead to impaired fertility in hybrid animals.  (+info)

Spectral tuning of dichromats to natural scenes. (66/1110)

Multispectral images of natural scenes were collected from both forests and coral reefs. We varied the wavelength position of receptors in hypothetical dichromatic visual systems and, for each receptor pair estimated the percentage of discriminable points in natural scenes. The optimal spectral tuning predicted by this model results in photoreceptor pairs very like those of forest dwelling, dichromatic mammals and of coral reef fishes. Variations of the natural illuminants in forests have little or no effect on optimal spectral tuning, but variations of depth in coral reefs have moderate effects on the spectral placement of S and L cones. The ratio of S and L cones typically found in dichromatic mammals reduces the discriminability of forest scenes; in contrast, the typical ratio of S and L cones in coral reef fishes achieves nearly the optimal discrimination in coral reef scenes.  (+info)

Intestinal spirochetosis in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) infected with Brachyspira species. (67/1110)

Seven adult free-ranging sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy for intestinal spirochetal infection. Histologically epithelial and goblet cell hyperplasia and edema of the lamina propria mucosa with macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the cecum and colon in 6 of the 7 deer. Numerous argyrophilic spirochetes were present in the crypts and some had invaded epithelial and goblet cells and caused degeneration. Immunohistochemically the organisms stained positively with polyclonal antisera against Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. Ultrastructurally they were 6-14 microm long, 0.2-0.3 microm wide and had 4-6 coils and 13 axial filaments per cell; such features were closely similar to those in the Brachyspira species. These results showed that the spirochetes were capable of inducing enteritis in deer and this intestinal spirochete infection might already be prevalent among wild sika deer in Japan. There is a possibility that this spirochetal colitis is a new syndrome in sika deer and that the same and/or similar spirochetes have infected ruminants, including sika deer and cattle.  (+info)

Blood acid-base and serum electrolyte values in red deer (Cervus elaphus). (68/1110)

Acid-base, serum electrolyte, plasma protein, and packed cell volume (PCV) values were determined in venous blood samples from 30 red deer (Cervus elaphus) of both sexes showing no clinical signs of disease. The animals were 5 months of age and kept on pasture in the Valley of Mexico, at an altitude of 2450 m. Blood samples were collected without sedation. Mean blood values were: pH 7.411 +/- 0.041, pCO2 37.7 +/- 4.4 mmHg, base excess 0.7 +/- 3.2 mmol/L, actual bicarbonate 24.3 +/- 3.1 mmol/L, total CO2 25.3 +/- 3.2 mmol/L and anion gap 23.5 +/- 5.5 mmol/L. Mean serum electrolyte levels were: Na+ 142.3 +/- 2.5 mmol/L, Cl- 100.5 +/- 2.3 mmol/L, and K+ 7.03 +/- 1.03 mmol/L. Plasma protein and PCV values were 60.0 +/- 6.6 g/L and 0.47 +/- 0.05 L/L, respectively. Blood values determined in this study can be considered reference data for health control and disease diagnosis.  (+info)

Milk production and composition in captive Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus): effect of birth date. (69/1110)

This study describes milk production and milk composition of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) females (hinds) and the effect of calving date and BW change of hinds by milking over 34 wk. All hinds produced milk throughout the 34-wk study period, well over the standard lactation period. Total milk yield was 224.1 +/- 21.1 L, and daily production was 0.91 +/- 0.06 L. Milk yield decreased with lactation stage (P = 0.01) and the later a calf was born (P = 0.008), and it was greater in posterior quarters (P < 0.05). Milk yield was unaffected (P > 0.10) by side position or milking order of the udder. Milk production did not correlate with hind BW (P > 0.1). Hinds lost 4.4% BW during lactation (P < 0.001); losses increased the later a calf was born (P = 0.012). Iberian red deer milk had 11.5% fat, 7.6% protein, 5.9% lactose, and 26.7% DM. Stage of lactation affected fat (P < 0.001), protein (P = 0.002), DM (P < 0.001), and protein:fat ratio (P < 0.001), but not lactose (P > 0.1). These constituents became concentrated as lactation proceeded, and protein was substituted by fat. Calving date had a similar concentrating effect on fat (P < 0.001) and DM (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased lactose (P = 0.015) and protein (P = 0.002), thus producing a substitution of protein by fat (ratio of protein to fat, P < 0.001). Milking order of quarters or their position had no effect on milk composition (P > 0.10). Results suggest that milk production and milk energetic quality might increase by advancing calving date in red deer hinds.  (+info)

Mycobacterium bovis-infected cervine alveolar macrophages secrete lymphoreactive lipid antigens. (70/1110)

Tuberculosis is caused by intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Mycobacterium, including M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the primary host cell for inhaled mycobacteria. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which infected AMs can process and present mycobacterial antigens to primed lymphocytes and how these responses may affect ensuing protection in the host. In the present study, we sought to determine whether AMs from a naturally susceptible host for Mycobacterium bovis (red deer) could produce and secrete soluble immunoreactive antigens following mycobacterial infection in vitro. Confluent monolayers of deer AMs were infected with either heat-killed or live virulent M. bovis or M. bovis BCG at a multiplicity of infection of 5:1 and cultured for 48 h. Culture supernatants were collected, concentrated, and tested for the presence of mycobacterial antigens in a lymphocyte proliferation assay by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from M. bovis-sensitized or naive deer. Supernatants derived from macrophages which had been infected with live bacilli stimulated the proliferation of antigen-sensitized, but not naive, lymphocytes. Supernatants derived from uninoculated AMs or AMs inoculated with heat-killed bacilli failed to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. The lymphoproliferative activity was retained following lipid extraction of the supernatants, which were free of amino groups as determined by thin-layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that mycobacteria which are actively growing within AMs produce lipids which are secreted into the extracellular milieu and that these lipids are recognized by lymphocytes from mycobacterium-primed hosts. We suggest that mycobacterial lipids are released from AMs following aerosol infection in vivo and that they play an important role in the early immune response to tuberculosis.  (+info)

Locations of 18S and 28S ribosomal genes on the chromosomes of the Indian muntjac. (71/1110)

The locations of genes coding for 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA have been mapped on metaphase chromosomes of the Indian muntjac M. muntjak by in situ hybridization with (3H)rRNA from the toad X. laevis. The results show that, in the muntjac, rDNA clusters are associated with the prominent secondary constrictions on the X and the Y1 chromos. In addition a cluster of rDNA is found near the tip of one arm on the longest pair of autosomes. The autosomal cluster of rDNAs usually does not express as a secondary constriction at metaphase.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in preclinically affected elk from a captive herd. (72/1110)

An immunohistochemical (IHC) method was used to test brain tissues from 17 elk in a captive herd in which chronic wasting disease (CWD) had previously occurred. The IHC technique detects the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP-res), which is considered a disease-specific marker for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), regardless of the species affected. Of the 17 elk tested, 10 were positive by IHC. Only 2 of these 10 animals had shown clinical signs and histologic lesions of CWD, and an additional animal had histologic lesions only. The most consistently IHC-positive tissue was medulla oblongata, especially the obex. These results show that the PrP-res IHC test on brain tissue, specifically medulla oblongata at the obex, should be considered an essential component of any surveillance study intended to determine the incidence of CWD in captive or free-ranging cervids.  (+info)