Sex determination based on fecal DNA analysis of the amelogenin gene in sika deer (Cervus nippon). (57/1110)

A sex determination method using DNA extracted from feces has been developed for sika deer (Cervus nippon). We determined a partial sequence of the amelogenin gene of sika deer, which exists on both X and Y chromosomes with a deletion region on the Y chromosome. Based on the sexually dimorphic sequences, we designed a pair of primers which could amplify DNA fragments the lengths of which are different between males and females. PCR products were detected in 34 out of 37 fecal samples collected from captured deer and the sexes estimated by the present method were perfectly matched with the actual sexes.  (+info)

Comparison of postmortem techniques for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). (58/1110)

A retrospective study of various diagnostic postmortem techniques used in a 4-year surveillance program for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was conducted. The tests evaluated were routine histopathology, acid-fast staining, detection of acid-fast bacilli in culture, and an M. tuberculosis group-specific genetic probe applied to pure cultures. Each of these techniques were compared with a reference or "gold standard" of mycobacterial culture and identification. Histopathology, the most rapid form of testing for M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer samples, had a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 87%, resulting in a positive predictive value of 94%. The detection of acid-fast bacilli by staining was less sensitive than histopathology (90%), but its higher specificity (97%) resulted in a positive predictive value of 99%. The detection of acid-fast bacilli on culture was both highly specific (93%) and sensitive (100%). The group-specific genetic probe had the highest sensitivity and specificity and produced results in complete agreement with those of mycobacterial culture, suggesting that this technique could be used as the new "gold standard" for this particular wildlife tuberculosis surveillance program.  (+info)

Fatal pulmonary edema in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) associated with adenovirus infection. (59/1110)

Sporadic sudden deaths in adult white-tailed deer occurred from November 1997 through August 1998 on an Iowa game farm. Three of the 4 deer necropsied had severe pulmonary edema, widespread mild lymphocytic vasculitis, and amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in scattered endothelial cells in blood vessels in the lung and abdominal viscera. Immunohistochemistry with bovine adenovirus 5 antisera and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral antigen and nucleocapsids, respectively, within endothelial cells. Adenovirus was isolated in cell culture from 1 of the affected deer. The isolate was neutralized by California black-tailed deer adenovirus antiserum. These findings indicate that adenovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both black-tailed and white-tailed deer with pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy.  (+info)

Rapid and parallel chromosomal number reductions in muntjac deer inferred from mitochondrial DNA phylogeny. (60/1110)

Muntjac deer (Muntiacinae, Cervidae) are of great interest in evolutionary studies because of their dramatic chromosome variations and recent discoveries of several new species. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of karyotypes of muntjac deer in the context of a phylogeny which is based on 1,844-bp mitochondrial DNA sequences of seven generally recognized species in the muntjac subfamily. The phylogenetic results support the hypothesis that karyotypic evolution in muntjac deer has proceeded via reduction in diploid number. However, the reduction in number is not always linear, i.e., not strictly following the order: 46-->14/13-->8/9-->6/7. For example, Muntiacus muntjak (2n = 6/7) shares a common ancestor with Muntiacus feae (2n = 13/14), which indicates that its karyotype was derived in parallel with M. feae's from an ancestral karyotype of 2n >/= 13/14. The newly discovered giant muntjac (Muntiacus vuquangensis) may represent another parallel reduction lineage from the ancestral 2n = 46 karyotype. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the giant muntjac is relatively closer to Muntiacus reevesi than to other muntjacs and may be placed in the genus Muntiacus Analyses of sequence divergence reveal that the rate of change in chromosome number in muntjac deer is one of the fastest in vertebrates. Within the muntjac subfamily, the fastest evolutionary rate is found in the Fea's lineage, in which two species with different karyotypes diverged in around 0.5 Myr.  (+info)

Histological studies of pedicle skin formation and its transformation to antler velvet in red deer (Cervus elaphus). (61/1110)

Deer antlers and their antecedent pedicles are made up of two components, interior osseocartilage and exterior integument. In a previous study, we described that histogenesis of the interior osseocartilage proceeds through four ossification stages. These are intramembranous (IMO), transition (OPC), pedicle endochondral (pECO), and antler endochondral (aECO). In the present study, we used histological techniques to examine pedicle skin formation and its transformation to antler velvet. The results showed that pedicle skin initiated from the apex of a frontal lateral crest and was formed through three distinctive stages. These stages are 1) compression of the subcutaneous loose connective tissue at the OPC stage, 2) stretching of the undulated epidermis at the early pECO stage, and 3) neogenesis of the skin and its associated appendages at the mid pECO stage. Transformation into antler velvet, which occurs at the late pECO stage, is mainly associated with alteration in the skin appendages. This alteration includes the loss of arrector pili muscle and sweat glands, and the gain of the large bi- or multi-lobed sebaceous glands. These results suggest that pedicle skin expansion occurs to release the mechanical tension created by underlying forming antlerogenic tissue, initially in response to it by mechanical stretch, and then by neogenesis of skin. In turn, the stretched pedicle skin may exert mechanical pressure on the underlying antlerogenic tissue causing it to change in ossification type. Antler velvet generation may be accomplished by both mechanical stimulation and chemical induction from the underlying pECO stage antlerogenic tissue. If this hypothesis is correct it is likely that mechanical stimulation would drive skin formation and chemical induction then determine skin type. Furthermore, asynchronous transformation of the interior and exterior components during pedicle formation and antler generation may result from the delayed chemical induction and the way antler velvet initially generates. The results from both mitotic cell labelling of the basal layer and ultrastructure of the basement membrane of the apical skin in the study support these hypotheses.  (+info)

Characterization of the Mycobacterium bovis restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA probe pUCD and performance comparison with standard methods. (62/1110)

In this study, the newly described Mycobacterium bovis restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing probe pUCD was characterized by sequence analysis and the previously observed polymorphic banding pattern was reproduced with a combination of three oligonucleotide probes in a single, mixed hybridization. In addition, the ability of pUCD to distinguish between 299 M. bovis isolates from the Republic of Ireland was assessed in relation to established methods and a statistical function for objective comparison of RFLP probes was derived. It was found that typing with pUCD alone produced greater discrimination between M. bovis isolates than typing with the commonly used mycobacterial DNA probes IS6110, PGRS, and DR and also by the spoligotyping technique. pUCD and DR in combination produced the highest level of discrimination while maintaining a high level of concordance with known epidemiological data relating to the samples. The reduction of pUCD to the level of oligonucleotides should in future allow pUCD and DR to be included together in a mixed hybridization, thus producing a high level of M. bovis strain type discrimination from a single round of RFLP analysis.  (+info)

Anatomy of deer spine and its comparison to the human spine. (63/1110)

The anatomical parameters of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the deer spine were evaluated and compared with the existing data of the human spine. The objective was to create a database for the anatomical parameters of the deer spine, with a view to establish deer spine as a valid model for human spine biomechanical experiments in vitro. To date, the literature has supported the use of both calf and sheep spines as a suitable model for human spine experiments as the difficulty in procuring the human cadaveric spines is well appreciated. With the advent of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its likely transmission to human in form of new variant Creutzfeld Jakob disease (CJD), there is a slight risk of transmission to humans through food chain if proper precautions for disposal of specimen are not adhered to. There is also a significant risk of transmission through direct inoculation to the researchers (Wells et al. Vet. Rec., 1998:142:103-106), working with infected bovine and sheep spine. The deer spines are readily available and there are no reported cases of deer being carriers of prion diseases (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1998). Six complete deer spines were measured to determine 22 dimensions from the vertebral bodies, endplates, disc, pedicles, spinal canal, transverse and spinous processes, articular facets. This was compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. The deer and human vertebrae show many similarities in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine, although they show substantial differences in certain dimensions. The cervical spine was markedly different in comparison. The deer spine may represent a suitable model for human experiments related to gross anatomy of the thoracic and lumbar spine. A thorough database has been provided for deciding the validity of deer spine as a model for the human spine biomechanical in vitro experiments.  (+info)

QTL for pubertal and seasonality traits in male Pere David's x red deer interspecies hybrids. (64/1110)

The unique Pere David's (Elaphurus davidianus) x red deer (Cervus elaphus) backcross hybrid has been used to search for evidence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for antler pubertal (date and live weight at pedicle initiation) and antler seasonality (date of antler cleaning and casting) traits in temperate species of deer. Analyses using marker information revealed evidence for a QTL for date at pedicle initiation (LOD = 3.7) and live weight at pedicle initiation (LOD = 3.1). These QTL explained 13% and 11% of the phenotypic variance in these traits, respectively.  (+info)