Serologic evidence of Puumala virus infection in wild moose in northern Sweden. (49/1110)

Puumala (PUU) virus is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, the Scandinavian form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The infection is acquired by airborne transmission of PUU virus from its rodent reservoir, the bank vole. Besides serologic data indicating that the virus may spread also to heterologous rodents, there is little information on the susceptibility of wild living animals to PUU virus. We studied the occurrence of antibodies to PUU virus in serum samples from 427 wild-living moose, of which 260 originated from the PUU virus-endemic northern and central parts of Sweden and 167 originated from the southern, nonendemic part of Sweden. Samples from 5 animals showed reactivity in an ELISA for recombinant PUU virus nucleocapsid protein, an immunofluorescent assay, and a neutralization test. These 5 animals all originated from the PUU virus-endemic northern part of Sweden. In conclusion, 5 of 260 moose from the endemic region showed convincing serologic evidence of past PUU virus infection. The seroprevalence was low, suggesting that the moose is subjected to endstage infection rather than being part of an enzootic transmission cycle.  (+info)

An occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium infection in sika deer (Cervus nippon). (50/1110)

Seven sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a herd of 30 deer in a park died. Upon examination of three dead deer, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from the organs and intestinal contents. Histopathological examination revealed catarrhal enteritis and focal necroses in the liver. Immunohistochemically, Salmonella antigen of O4 was detected in the enteric lesions. The case was diagnosed as S. Typhimurium infection in the sika deer. Because of the importance of Salmonella in public health, fecal and soil samples were continuously collected from the paddock. However, no Salmonella was isolated from any samples collected after medication of the deer and thorough disinfection of the immediate environment.  (+info)

Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila. (51/1110)

Samples of blood, spleen and legs from 112 culled roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were collected from nine sites widespread in the United Kingdom. The prevalence of infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction. Means of 58% of 102 plasma or serum samples were seroreactive by IFA, 38% of 84 blood samples and 29% of 82 spleen samples were positive by PCR. Ticks on legs of 71 roe deer were Ixodes ricinus larvae, nymphs and adults and 83% of legs were infested. Numbers of ticks corresponded positively to the percentage of samples positive for E. phagocytophila by serology and PCR for different sampling sites. Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from the vegetation at one site with infected deer were analysed for infection with E. phagocytophila by examination of Feulgen stained salivary glands. Of 135 nymphs 5% were infected. These results confirm that roe deer are commonly parasitized by both E. phagocytophila and its vector tick in such a way that it is likely to be an important natural mammalian reservoir of E. phagocytophila.  (+info)

Bartonella spp. isolated from wild and domestic ruminants in North America. (52/1110)

Bartonella species were isolated from 49% of 128 cattle from California and Oklahoma, 90% of 42 mule deer from California, and 15% of 100 elk from California and Oregon. Isolates from all 63 cattle, 14 deer, and 1 elk had the same polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Our findings indicate potential for inter- and intraspecies transmission among ruminants, as well as risk that these Bartonella spp. could act as zoonotic agents.  (+info)

Production of interferon by red deer (Cervus elaphus) conceptuses and the effects of roIFN-tau on the timing of luteolysis and the success of asynchronous embryo transfer. (53/1110)

The role of interferon in early pregnancy in red deer was investigated by (a) measuring production of interferon by the conceptus, (b) testing the anti-luteolytic effect of recombinant interferon-tau in non-pregnant hinds, and (c) treatment of hinds with interferon after asynchronous embryo transfer. Blastocysts were collected from 34 hinds by uterine flushing 14 (n = 2), 16 (n = 2), 18 (n = 8), 20 (n = 13) or 22 (n = 9) days after synchronization of oestrus with progesterone withdrawal. Interferon anti-viral activity was detectable in uterine flushings from day 16 to day 22, and increased with duration of gestation (P < 0.01) and developmental stage (P < 0.01). When interferon-tau was administered daily between day 14 and day 20 to non-pregnant hinds to mimic natural blastocyst production, luteolysis was delayed by a dose of 0.2 mg day(-1) (27.3 +/- 1.3 days after synchronization, n = 4 versus 21 +/- 0 days in control hinds, n = 3; P < 0.05). Interferon-tau was administered to hinds after asynchronous embryo transfer to determine whether it protects the conceptus against early pregnancy loss. Embryos (n = 24) collected on day 6 from naturally mated, superovulated donors (n = 15) were transferred into synchronized recipients on day 10 or day 11. Interferon-tau treatment (0.2 mg daily from day 14 to 20) increased calving rate from 0 to 64% in all recipients (0/11 versus 7/11, P < 0.005), and from 0 to 67% in day 10 recipients (0/8 versus 6/9, P < 0.01). The increased success rate of asynchronous embryo transfer after interferon-tau treatment in cervids may be of benefit where mismatched embryo-maternal signalling leads to failure in the establishment of pregnancy.  (+info)

Characteristics of the spread of a wildlife rabies epidemic in Europe. (54/1110)

The control of rabies in wildlife by reducing the fox population has led in Europe to inconsistent results, since little was known of the dynamics of the fox population and the interaction between rabies epidemics, host populations, and control measures. As part of the WHO/FAO Coordinated Research Programme on Wildlife Rabies in Europe, data on epidemics and persisting reservoirs of the disease were processed by computer. The results led to a better understanding of the mechanism of spread of the epidemic and to proposals for the improvement of rabies control in animals and the protection of man.  (+info)

Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies in white-tailed deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996. (55/1110)

Surveillance of 2,277 white-tailed deer for antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Iowa showed seropositivity rates of 12.5% in 1994 and 13.9% in 1996. From 1994 to 1996, the estimated number of seropositive deer increased to 54,701 (28%). The increasing deer population and expanding tick distribution may increase risk for human monocytic ehrlichiosis.  (+info)

Borrelia burgdorferi and the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in deer ticks, Delaware. (56/1110)

During the 1998 hunting season in Delaware, 1,480 ticks were collected from 252 white- tailed deer; 98% were Ixodes scapularis, a significant increase from the 85% reported in 1988. Ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Infection rates remained stable in New Castle and Kent counties, but increased from <1% to 8% in sussex county.  (+info)