Theileriosis in a Missouri beef herd caused by Theileria buffeli: case report, herd investigation, ultrastructure, phylogenetic analysis, and experimental transmission. (41/1110)

A 6-year-old Simmental cow infected with Theileria buffeli had a clinical disease characterized by theilerial parasitemia, macrocytic normochromic anemia with acanthocytosis and spherocytosis, lymphoid hyperplasia (lymphocytosis, edematous lymphadenomegaly), dysproteinemia, evidence of liver disease, and a low serum antibody titer against T. buffeli. The cow was in a herd in which all cattle originated in Missouri; 22/75 (29%) of cattle had a theilerial parasitemia and 26/75 (35%) had titers to T. buffeli of > or =1:160. Classification of the Missouri bovine organism as T. buffeli was based on DNA sequencing and comparison to sequences for T. buffeli and Theileria sp. type A obtained from GenBank. Intraerythrocytic veils and piroplasms were seen during transmission electron microscopy. The organism was successfully transmitted to two splenectomized calves, which developed mild anemias while parasitemic. Blood from the second calf was used as the source of T. buffeli antigen for an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. Theilerial isolates from a Missouri white-tailed deer were also sequenced and resembled Theileria sp. types F and G and were not consistent with the bovine organism.  (+info)

Hematological and plasma biochemical values in captive Eld's-Brow Antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin) in Thailand. (42/1110)

Blood samples were collected from 20 sedated captive Eld's-Brow Antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin), aged over 1.5 years, to define their mean hematological values (packed cell volume and hemoglobin) and mean plasma biochemical parameters. Male deer had a significantly higher plasma glucose level and aspartate aminotransferase activity than female deer.  (+info)

Genetic resistance to experimental infection with Mycobacterium bovis in red deer (Cervus elaphus). (43/1110)

Tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a worldwide threat to livestock and humans. One control strategy is to breed livestock that are more resistant to Mycobacterium bovis. In a 3-year heritability study 6 farmed red deer stags were selected from 39 on the basis of their differing responses to experimental challenge via the tonsillar sac with approximately 500 CFU of M. bovis. Two stags remained uninfected, two were moderately affected, and two developed serious spreading Tb. Seventy offspring, bred from these six stags by artificial insemination using stored semen, were similarly challenged with M. bovis. The offspring showed patterns of response to M. bovis challenge similar to those of their sires, providing evidence for a strong genetic basis to resistance to Tb, with an estimated heritability of 0.48 (standard error, 0.096; P < 0. 01). This is the first time the heritability of Tb resistance in domestic livestock has been measured. The breeding of selection lines of resistant and susceptible deer will provide an ideal model to study the mechanisms of Tb resistance in a ruminant and could provide an additional strategy for reducing the number and severity of outbreaks of Tb in farmed deer herds. Laboratory studies to identify genetic and immunological markers for resistance to Tb are under way. Preliminary studies showed no associations between NRAMP or DRB genes and resistance to Tb in deer. Patterns of immune responses seen in resistant animals suggest that both innate and acquired pathways of immunity are necessary to produce the resistant phenotype.  (+info)

Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids. (44/1110)

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.  (+info)

Structure and mineralisation density of antler and pedicle bone in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) exposed to different levels of environmental fluoride: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study. (45/1110)

The structure and relative degree of mineralisation of antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer stags exposed either to low or high levels of environmental fluoride were determined by digital quantitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. Bone fluoride content (BFC) in antlers (845 +/- 86 mg F-/kg ash, arithmetic mean +/- S.E.M.) and pedicles (1448 +/- 154 mg F-/kg ash) of deer from a highly fluoride polluted area in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of controls from uncontaminated regions in West Germany (antlers: 206 +/- 41, pedicles: 322 +/- 52 mg F-/kg ash). Mean (56.5 +/- 4.5%) and maximum (84.9 +/- 2.1%) mineralised bone area of the control antlers significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) exceeded the corresponding values for the N. Bohemian deer (43.3 +/- 1.3 and 73.3 +/- 1.9%, respectively), while the pedicles from the 2 groups did not differ significantly. In the pooled antler samples (n = 18), negative correlations existed between BFC and mean (r(s) = -0.62, P < 0.01) as well as maximum (r(s) = -0.69, P < 0.01) mineralised bone area. Morphological imaging revealed a decreased width and an increased porosity of the antler cortex in the N. Bohemian specimens. Mean (148.5 +/- 1.7) and maximum (154.2 +/- 1.7) BSE-signal intensities (= grey levels; range between a monobrominated (grey level 0) and a monoiodinated (grey level 255) dimethacrylate resin standard) of the antlers from the controls were significantly higher than those of the N. Bohemian deer (140.7 +/- 2.1 and 145.7 +/- 2.2, respectively; P < 0.05 for both comparisons). In the pooled antler samples, negative correlations between BFC and mean (r(s) = -0.51, P < 0.05) as well as maximum (r(s) = -0.52, P < 0.05) BSE-signal intensities were observed. No significant differences in mineralisation density parameters were found for the 2 pedicle samples, and BFC and mineralisation density of the pooled pedicles were uncorrelated. Morphological imaging revealed bone mottling (denoting increased remodelling activity) and frequent occurrence of apparently increased osteocyte lacunae in some of the pedicles from the N. Bohemian deer. It is concluded that the reduced amount of mineralised bone in, and the lower mineralisation density of, the N. Bohemian antlers resulted from a fluoride induced disturbance of bone mineralisation. The rapid growth of antlers leads both to a high mineral demand and a high rate of fluoride uptake during antlerogenesis. This, and the limited lifespan of antlers, which does not allow for a compensation of a delay in the onset or progression of the mineralisation process, renders antler bone particularly susceptible to fluoride. Antlers are therefore considered a useful model for studying fluoride effects on bone formation. Furthermore, analysis of cast antlers enables a noninvasive monitoring of environmental pollution by fluorides.  (+info)

Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus. (46/1110)

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed to detect antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus (EHDV). The assay incorporates a monoclonal antibody to EHDV serotype 2 (EHDV-2) that demonstrates specificity for the viral structural protein, VP7. The assay was evaluated with sequential sera collected from cattle experimentally infected with EHDV serotype 1 (EHDV-1) and EHDV-2, as well as the four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), BTV-10, BTV-11, BTV-13, and BTV-17, that currently circulate in the US. A competitive and a blocking format as well as the use of antigen produced from both EHDV-1- and EHDV-2-infected cells were evaluated. The assay was able to detect specific antibody as early as 7 days after infection and could differentiate animals experimentally infected with EHDV from those experimentally infected with BTV. The diagnostic potential of this assay was demonstrated with field-collected serum samples from cattle, deer, and buffalo.  (+info)

Body mass and individual fitness in female ungulates: bigger is not always better. (47/1110)

In female vertebrates, differences in fitness often correspond to differences in phenotypic quality, suggesting that larger females have greater fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from variation in life span and/or variation in yearly reproductive success, but no study has yet assessed the relationships between the components of fitness and phenotypic quality while controlling for life span. We tried to fill this gap using data from long-term monitoring (23 years) of marked roe deer and bighorn sheep, two ungulates with very different life histories. In both species, we found a strong positive relationship between an adult female's mass and her probability of reaching old age: over the long term, bigger is indeed better for ungulate females. On the other hand, we found no evidence in either species that heavier females had higher fitness when differences in life span were accounted for: over the short term, bigger is not necessarily better. Our results indicate that, while broad differences in phenotypic quality affect individual fitness, when differences in life span are accounted for phenotypic quality has no residual effect on fitness. Therefore, within a given range of phenotypic quality, bigger is not always better, for reasons which may differ between species.  (+info)

Newly recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). (48/1110)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) or specific for alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1). By using degenerate primers targeting a conserved region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, a DNA fragment was amplified from the PBL or spleens of all six deer and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that the virus in the deer belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, exhibiting 82% identity to OHV-2, 71% to AHV-1, and 60% to a newly identified bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. This virus, which causes classical MCF in white-tailed deer, is a newly recognized agent belonging to the MCF group of gammaherpesviruses. It is the third reported pathogenic MCF virus, genetically distinct but closely related to OHV-2 and AHV-1. The reservoir for the virus has not been identified.  (+info)