Direct evidence of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in squid rhabdomeric membranes. (1/1021)

Na+/Ca2+ exchange has been investigated in squid (Loligo pealei) rhabdomeric membranes. Ca2+-containing vesicles have been prepared from purified rhabdomeric membranes by extrusion through polycarbonate filters of 1-micrometer pore size. After removal of external Ca2+, up to 90% of the entrapped Ca2+ could be specifically released by the addition of Na+; this finding indicates that most of the vesicles contained Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux had a half-maximum value (K1/2) of approximately 44 mM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 1.7. The maximal Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux was approximately 0.6 nmol Ca2+. s-1. mg protein-1. Similar Na+-induced Ca2+ effluxes were measured if K+ was replaced with Li+ or Cs+. Vesicles loaded with Ca2+ by Na+/Ca2+ exchange also released this Ca2+ by Na+/Ca2+ exchange, suggesting that Na+/Ca2+ exchange operated in both forward and reverse modes. Limited proteolysis by trypsin resulted in a rate of Ca2+ efflux enhanced by approximately fivefold when efflux was activated with 95 mM NaCl. For vesicles subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin, Na+/Ca2+ exchange was characterized by a K1/2 of approximately 25 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. For these vesicles, the maximal Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux was about twice as great as in control vesicles. We conclude that Na+/Ca2+ exchange proteins localized in rhabdomeric membranes mediate Ca2+ extrusion in squid photoreceptors.  (+info)

Distinguishing surface effects of calcium ion from pore-occupancy effects in Na+ channels. (2/1021)

The effects of calcium ion on the Na+ activation gate were studied in squid giant axons. Saxitoxin (STX) was used to block ion entry into Na+ channels without hindering access to the membrane surface, making it possible to distinguish surface effects of calcium from pore-occupancy effects. In the presence of STX, gating kinetics were measured from gating current (Ig). The kinetic effects of external calcium concentration changes were small when STX was present. In the absence of STX, lowering the calcium concentration (from 100 to 10 mM) slowed the closing of Na+ channels (measured from INa tails) by more than a factor of 2. Surprisingly, the voltage sensitivity of closing kinetics changed with calcium concentration, and it was modified by STX. Voltage sensitivity apparently depends in part on the ability of calcium to enter and block the channels as voltage is driven negative. In external medium with no added calcium, INa tail current initially increases in amplitude severalfold with the relief of calcium block, then progressively slows and gets smaller, as calcium diffuses out of the layers investing the axon. INa tails seen just before the current disappears suggest that closing in the absence of channel block is very slow or does not occur. INa amplitude and kinetics are completely restored when calcium is returned. The results strongly suggest that calcium occupancy is a requirement for channel closing and that nonoccupied channels fold reversibly into a nonfunctional conformation.  (+info)

Detyrosination of tubulin regulates the interaction of intermediate filaments with microtubules in vivo via a kinesin-dependent mechanism. (3/1021)

Posttranslationally modified forms of tubulin accumulate in the subset of stabilized microtubules (MTs) in cells but are not themselves involved in generating MT stability. We showed previously that stabilized, detyrosinated (Glu) MTs function to localize vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) in fibroblasts. To determine whether tubulin detyrosination or MT stability is the critical element in the preferential association of IFs with Glu MTs, we microinjected nonpolymerizable Glu tubulin into cells. If detyrosination is critical, then soluble Glu tubulin should be a competitive inhibitor of the IF-MT interaction. Before microinjection, Glu tubulin was rendered nonpolymerizable and nontyrosinatable by treatment with iodoacetamide (IAA). Microinjected IAA-Glu tubulin disrupted the interaction of IFs with MTs, as assayed by the collapse of IFs to a perinuclear location, and had no detectable effect on the array of Glu or tyrosinated MTs in cells. Conversely, neither IAA-tyrosinated tubulin nor untreated Glu tubulin, which assembled into MTs, caused collapse of IFs when microinjected. The epitope on Glu tubulin responsible for interfering with the Glu MT-IF interaction was mapped by microinjecting tubulin fragments of alpha-tubulin. The 14-kDa C-terminal fragment of Glu tubulin (alpha-C Glu) induced IF collapse, whereas the 36-kDa N-terminal fragment of alpha-tubulin did not alter the IF array. The epitope required more than the detyrosination site at the C terminus, because a short peptide (a 7-mer) mimicking the C terminus of Glu tubulin did not disrupt the IF distribution. We previously showed that kinesin may mediate the interaction of Glu MTs and IFs. In this study we found that kinesin binding to MTs in vitro was inhibited by the same reagents (i.e., IAA-Glu tubulin and alpha-C Glu) that disrupted the IF-Glu MT interaction in vivo. These results demonstrate for the first time that tubulin detyrosination functions as a signal for the recruitment of IFs to MTs via a mechanism that is likely to involve kinesin.  (+info)

Characterization of a Na+-dependent betaine transporter with Cl- channel properties in squid motor neurons. (4/1021)

Most marine invertebrates, including squids, use transporters to accumulate organic osmolytes such as betaine, to prevent water loss when exposed to elevated salinity. Although a limited number of flux studies have shown the Na+ dependence of betaine transport, nothing is known about the electrogenic properties of osmolyte transporters. We used whole cell and perforated-patch voltage-clamp techniques to characterize the electrical properties of the betaine transporter in giant fiber lobe motor neurons of the squid Lolliguncula brevis. Betaine activated a large, Cl--selective current that was reversibly blocked by 100 microM niflumic acid (97 +/- 2% block after 40 s, SD; n = 7) and partially inhibited by 500 microM SITS (29 +/- 11%; n = 5). The Cl- current was Na+ dependent and was virtually eliminated by isotonic replacement of Na+ with Li+, NMDG+, or Tris+. Concentration-response data revealed an EC50 in a physiologically relevant range for these animals of 5.1 +/- 0.9 mM (n = 11). In vertebrates, the betaine transporter is structurally related to the GABA transporter, and although GABA did not directly activate the betaine-induced current, it reversibly reduced betaine responses by 34 +/- 14% (n = 8). Short-term changes in osmolality alone did not activate the Cl- current, but when combined with betaine, Cl- currents increased in hypertonic solutions and decreased in hypotonic solutions. Activation of the betaine transporter and Cl- current in hypertonic conditions may affect both volume regulation and excitability in L. brevis motor neurons. This study is the first report of a novel betaine transporter in neurons that can act as a Cl- channel.  (+info)

The bombesin receptor subtypes have distinct G protein specificities. (5/1021)

We used an in situ reconstitution assay to examine the receptor coupling to purified G protein alpha subunits by the bombesin receptor family, including gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R), and bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). Cells expressing GRP-R or NMB-R catalyzed the activation of squid retinal Galphaq and mouse Galphaq but not bovine retinal Galphat or bovine brain Galphai/o. The GRP-R- and NMB-R-catalyzed activations of Galphaq were dependent upon and enhanced by different betagamma dimers in the same rank order as follows: bovine brain betagamma > beta1gamma2 >> beta1gamma1. Despite these qualitative similarities, GRP-R and NMB-R had distinct kinetic properties in receptor-G protein coupling. GRP-R had higher affinities for bovine brain betagamma, beta1gamma1, and beta1gamma2 and squid retinal Galphaq. In addition, GRP-R showed higher catalytic activity on squid Galphaq. Like GRP-R and NMB-R, BRS-3 did not catalyze GTPgammaS binding to Galphai/o or Galphat. However, BRS-3 showed little, if any, coupling with squid Galphaq but clearly activated mouse Galphaq. GRP-R and NMB-R catalyzed GTPgammaS binding to both squid and mouse Galphaq, with GRP-R activating squid Galphaq more effectively, and NMB-R also showed slight preference for squid Galphaq. These studies reveal that the structurally similar bombesin receptor subtypes, in particular BRS-3, possess distinct coupling preferences among members of the Galphaq family.  (+info)

An ethogram of body patterning behavior in the biomedically and commercially valuable squid Loligo pealei off Cape Cod, Massachusetts. (6/1021)

Squids have a wide repertoire of body patterns; these patterns contain visual signals assembled from a highly diverse inventory of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components. The chromatic components reflect the activity of dermal chromatophore organs that, like the postural and locomotor muscles, are controlled directly from the central nervous system. Because a thorough knowledge of body patterns is fundamental to an understanding of squid behavior, we have compiled and described an ethogram (a catalog of body patterns and associated behaviors) for Loligo pealei. Observations of this species were made over a period of three years (> or = 440 h) and under a variety of behavioral circumstances. The natural behavior of the squid was filmed on spawning grounds off Cape Cod (northwestern Atlantic), and behavioral trials in the laboratory were run in large tanks. The body pattern components--34 chromatic (including 4 polarization components), 5 postural, and 12 locomotor--are each described in detail. Eleven of the most common body patterns are also described. Four of them are chronic, or long-lasting, patterns for crypsis; an example is Banded Bottom Sitting, which produces disruptive coloration against the substrate. The remaining seven patterns are acute; they are mostly used in intraspecific communication among spawning squids. Two of these acute patterns--Lateral Display and Mate Guarding Pattern--are used during agonistic bouts and mate guarding; they are visually bright and conspicuous, which may subject the squids to predation; but we hypothesize that schooling and diurnal activity may offset the disadvantage presented by increased visibility to predators. The rapid changeability and the diversity of body patterns used for crypsis and communication are discussed in the context of the behavioral ecology of this species.  (+info)

Slow transport of unpolymerized tubulin and polymerized neurofilament in the squid giant axon. (7/1021)

A major issue in the slow transport of cytoskeletal proteins is the form in which they are transported. We have investigated the possibility that unpolymerized as well as polymerized cytoskeletal proteins can be actively transported in axons. We report the active transport of highly diffusible tubulin oligomers, as well as transport of the less diffusible neurofilament polymers. After injection into the squid giant axon, tubulin was transported in an anterograde direction at an average rate of 2.3 mm/day, whereas neurofilament was moved at 1.1 mm/day. Addition of the metabolic poisons cyanide or dinitrophenol reduced the active transport of both proteins to less than 10% of control values, whereas disruption of microtubules by treatment of the axon with cold in the presence of nocodazole reduced transport of both proteins to approximately 20% of control levels. Passive diffusion of these proteins occurred in parallel with transport. The diffusion coefficient of the moving tubulin in axoplasm was 8.6 micrometer(2)/s compared with only 0.43 micrometer(2)/s for neurofilament. These results suggest that the tubulin was transported in the unpolymerized state and that the neurofilament was transported in the polymerized state by an energy-dependent nocodazole/cold-sensitive transport mechanism.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel isoform of myosinase from spear squid liver. (8/1021)

A novel isoform of myosinase was purified to homogeneity from liver of spear squid by sequential chromatographies using SP Sephadex, hydroxylapatite, Zn/Co chelating affinity, and TSK-gel G2000SW columns. Myosinase activity was detected as a single peak of 45-kDa protein by gel filtration. The novel isoform of myosinase specifically hydrolyzed a rabbit skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain into products of 120 and 100 kDa in the presence of Co(2+) ions, and the cleavage site in the myosin heavy chain was quite different from those of two known myosinase isoforms, I and II. Therefore, we named the novel isoform myosinase III. Myosinase III was also distinguishable from myosinase I by its amino-terminal sequence. The sequence showed similarity to an internal sequence of the astacin family.  (+info)