O- and N-demethylation of venlafaxine in vitro by human liver microsomes and by microsomes from cDNA-transfected cells: effect of metabolic inhibitors and SSRI antidepressants.
The biotransformation of venlafaxine (VF) into its two major metabolites, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) was studied in vitro with human liver microsomes and with microsomes containing individual human cytochromes from cDNA-transfected human lymphoblastoid cells. VF was coincubated with selective cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors and several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to assess their inhibitory effect on VF metabolism. Formation rates for ODV incubated with human microsomes were consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics for a single-enzyme mediated reaction with substrate inhibition. Mean parameters determined by non-linear regression were: Vmax = 0.36 nmol/min/mg protein, K(m) = 41 microM, and Ks 22901 microM (Ks represents a constant which reflects the degree of substrate inhibition). Quinidine (QUI) was a potent inhibitor of ODV formation with a Ki of 0.04 microM, and paroxetine (PX) was the most potent SSRI at inhibiting ODV formation with a mean Ki value of 0.17 microM. Studies using expressed cytochromes showed that ODV was formed by CYP2C9, -2C19, and -2D6. CYP2D6 was dominant with the lowest K(m), 23.2 microM, and highest intrinsic clearance (Vmax/K(m) ratio). No unique model was applicable to the formation of NDV for all four livers tested. Parameters determined by applying a single-enzyme model were Vmax = 2.14 nmol/min/mg protein, and K(m) = 2504 microM. Ketoconazole was a potent inhibitor of NDV production, although its inhibitory activity was not as great as observed with pure 3A substrates. NDV formation was also reduced by 42% by a polyclonal rabbit antibody against rat liver CYP3A1. Studies using expressed cytochromes showed that NDV was formed by CYP2C9, -2C19, and -3A4. The highest intrinsic clearance was attributable to CYP2C19 and the lowest to CYP3A4. However the high in vivo abundance of 3A isoforms will magnify the importance of this cytochrome. Fluvoxamine (FX), at a concentration of 20 microM, decreased NDV production by 46% consistent with the capacity of FX to inhibit CYP3A, 2C9, and 2C19. These results are consistent with previous studies that show CYP2D6 and -3A4 play important roles in the formation of ODV and NDV, respectively. In addition we have shown that several other CYPs have important roles in the biotransformation of VF. (+info)
Methadone N-demethylation in human liver microsomes: lack of stereoselectivity and involvement of CYP3A4.
AIMS: To investigate the kinetics of CYP-mediated N-demethylation of methadone in human liver microsomes, and examine the role of stereoselectivity and CYP isoforms involved. METHODS: The kinetics of 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) formation via N-demethylation of rac-, (R)- and (S)-methadone in human liver microsomes prepared from six liver samples were determined by h.p.l.c., and inhibition of metabolic function was studied using isoform-specific chemical inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Microsomes containing expressed CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were also used to examine the formation of EDDP. RESULTS: The V max, Km, and CLint values for the formation of EDDP from rac-, (R)- and (S)-methadone were in the ranges of 20-77 nmol mg-1 protein h-1, 125-252 microm, and 91-494 ml h-1 g-1 protein. Km and CLint values for (R)- and (S)-methadone were not statistically significantly different (P >0.05), while V max values for (S)-methadone were 15% (P=0.045) lower than for (R)-methadone. Expressed CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 showed similar reaction rates for both (R)- and (S)-methadone, while CYP2D6 did not catalyse this reaction. Selective chemical inhibitors of CYP3A (troleandomycin, ketoconazole) and monoclonal human CYP3A4 antibodies significantly inhibited (P<0.05) the formation of EDDP in a concentration dependent manner by up to 80%. Sulphaphenazole (CYP2C9) also significantly inhibited (P<0.05) EDDP formation (range 14-25%). There were no statistically significant differences in the inhibition observed between the three substrates. Selective inhibitors of CYP1A2 (furafylline), CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2C19 ((S)-mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (quinidine) and CYP2E1 (diethyldithiocarbamic acid sodium salt and monoclonal human CYP2E1 antibodies) had no significant (P >0.05) effect. CONCLUSIONS: The N-demethylation of methadone in human liver microsomes is not markedly stereoselective, and is mediated mainly by CYP3A4 with the possible involvement of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Thus, the large interindividual variation reported for methadone pharmacokinetics may be due to variability in the expression of these CYP isoforms, and the reported stereoselectivity in the systemic clearance of methadone in vivo is not due to stereoselectivity in N-demethylation. (+info)
Impact of ethnic origin and quinidine coadministration on codeine's disposition and pharmacodynamic effects.
CYP2D6 is polymorphically distributed so that in poor metabolizers enzyme activity is missing. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of codeine with and without quinidine between Caucasian and Chinese extensive metabolizers of debrisoquin. Nine Caucasians and eight Chinese subjects received in random, double blind fashion, on two occasions, codeine 120 mg. with placebo or with quinidine 100 mg. Pharmacodynamic effects were determined over 6 h. Codeine-apparent clearance and partial metabolic clearance by O-demethylation were significantly greater in the Caucasian than in the Chinese subjects (1939 +/- 175 ml/min versus 1301 +/- 193 ml/min, p <.03 and 162.7 +/- 36.6 ml/min versus 52.7 +/- 12.7 ml/min, p <.02, respectively). Codeine's respiratory effects (except on resting ventilation) were significantly greater in the Caucasian than in the Chinese subjects (p <.05), but no interethnic differences were noted in codeine's effect on the digit symbol substitution test and pupillary ratio. No morphine or morphine metabolites were detected in plasma when codeine was coadministered with quinidine. Codeine O-demethylation was significantly reduced after quinidine in both ethnic groups; however, the absolute decrease was greater in Caucasians (115.8 +/- 25.9 ml/min versus 46.8 +/- 10.6 ml/min, respectively, p <.03). The diminished production of morphine after quinidine was associated in the Caucasians, but not in the Chinese, with a marked reduction in codeine's effects (p <.01). In conclusion, Chinese produce less morphine from codeine, exhibit reduced sensitivity to that morphine, and therefore might experience reduced analgesic effect in response to codeine. In addition, quinidine induced inhibition of codeine O-demethylation is ethnically dependent with the reduction being greater in Caucasians. (+info)
Involvement of CYP2E1 as A low-affinity enzyme in phenacetin O-deethylation in human liver microsomes.
Phenacetin O-deethylation (POD) exhibits biphasic kinetics in human liver microsomes. Although cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2 is responsible for the high-affinity component of POD, the enzyme(s) that catalyzes the low-affinity reaction is still unknown. We examined the roles of human CYPs in POD by using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells. Of the recombinant CYPs studied, CYP1A2 showed the highest POD activity. CYP1A1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 also showed POD activity at 500 microM phenacetin. K(M) values of recombinant CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 (28 +/- 2 microM and 785 +/- 125 microM, respectively) were similar to those of the high- and low-affinity components of POD in pooled human liver microsomes (15 +/- 5 and 894 +/- 189 microM, respectively). Fluvoxamine (10 microM) and anti-CYP1A2 antibodies potently inhibited POD activity at 500 microM phenacetin in pooled human liver microsomes to 22.8 and 34.2% of controls, respectively. CYP2E1 inhibitors diethyldithiocarbamate and aniline also reduced POD activity. The combination of fluvoxamine (10 microM) and aniline (1 mM) further inhibited the residual POD activity not inhibited by fluvoxamine alone. Microsomal POD activity in 12 human livers in the absence of fluvoxamine was correlated with immunoquantified CYP1A2 levels (r = 0.961, p <.001) and, in the presence of 10 microM fluvoxamine, was correlated with immunoquantified CYP2E1 levels (r = 0.589, p <.01) or chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activity (r = 0.823, p <.001). These results suggest that CYP2E1 is responsible for the low-affinity component of POD in human liver microsomes. (+info)
In vitro identification of the human cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the N-demethylation of azelastine.
Azelastine hydrochloride [4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-2-(hexahydro-1-methyl-1H-azepin-4yl )-1-(2 H)-phthalazinone monohydrochloride], is a long-acting antiallergic and antiasthmatic drug. The human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoform responsible for azelastine N-demethylation, the major metabolic pathway for azelastine, has been examined. Eadie-Hofstee plots of azelastine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes were biphasic. In microsomes from baculovirus-infected insect cells, recombinant CYP3A4, 2D6, 1A2, and 2C19 exhibited high azelastine N-demethylase activity. The K(m) values of the recombinant CYP2D6 (3.75 microM) and CYP3A4 (43.7 microM) were relatively close to that of high-affinity (14.1 microM) and low-affinity (54.7 microM) components in human liver microsomes, respectively. Azelastine N-demethylase activity was inhibited only by the anti-CYP3A antibody, in contrast to antibodies for CYP1A, 2D6, and 2C. In addition, desmethylazelastine formation was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole and troleandomycin but only weakly by omeprazole, sulfaphenazole, and furafylline. These observations suggested that the N-demethylation of azelastine is most extensively catalyzed by the CYP2D6 and 3A4 isoforms in humans. (+info)
Oxidative metabolism of monensin in rat liver microsomes and interactions with tiamulin and other chemotherapeutic agents: evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P-450 3A subfamily.
Monensin (MON) is an ionophore antibiotic widely used in veterinary practice as a coccidiostatic or a growth promoter. The aims of this study were to characterize the P-450 isoenzyme(s) involved in the biotransformation of the ionophore and to investigate how this process may be affected by tiamulin and other chemotherapeutic agents known to produce toxic interactions with MON when administered concurrently in vivo. In liver microsomes from untreated rats (UT) or from rats pretreated, respectively, with ethanol (ETOH), beta-naphthoflavone (betaNAF), phenobarbital (PB), pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), or dexamethasone (DEX), the rate of MON O-demethylation was the following: DEX > PCN > PB >> UT = ETOH > betaNAF; similar results were obtained by measuring total MON metabolism. In addition, the extent of triacetyloleandomycin-mediated P-450 complexes was greatly reduced by the prior addition of 100 microM MON. In DEX-treated microsomes, MON O-demethylation was found to fit monophasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(M) = 67.6 +/- 0.01 microM; V(max) = 4.75 +/- 0.76 nmol/min/mg protein). Tiamulin markedly inhibited this activity in an apparent competitive manner, with a calculated K(i) (Dixon plot) of 8.2 microM and an IC(50) of about 25 microM. At the latter concentration, only ketoconazole or metyrapone, which can bind P-450 3A, inhibited MON O-demethylase to a greater extent than tiamulin, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone, chloramphenicol, or sulphametasine was less effective. These results suggest that P-450 3A plays an important role in the oxidative metabolism of MON and that compounds capable of binding or inhibiting this isoenzyme could be expected to give rise to toxic interactions with the ionophore. (+info)
Cytochrome P-450 3A4 and 2C8 are involved in zopiclone metabolism.
Zopiclone is a widely prescribed, nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that is extensively metabolized by the liver in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify the human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms involved in zopiclone metabolism in vitro. Zopiclone metabolism was studied with different human liver microsomes and a panel of heterologously expressed human CYPs (CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4). In human liver microsomes, zopiclone was metabolized into N-desmethyl-zopiclone (ND-Z) and N-oxide-zopiclone (NO-Z) with the following K(m) and V(m) of 78 +/- 5 and 84 +/- 19 microM, 45 +/- 1 and 54 +/- 5 pmol/min/mg for ND-Z and NO-Z generation, respectively. Ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor) inhibited approximately 40% of the generation of both metabolites, sulfaphenazole (CYP2C inhibitor) inhibited the formation of ND-Z, whereas alpha-naphtoflavone (CYP1A), quinidine (CYP2D6), and chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) did not affect zopiclone metabolism. The generation of ND-Z and NO-Z were highly correlated to testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A activity, r = 0.95 and 0.92, respectively; p =.0001), and ND-Z was highly correlated to CYP2C8 activity (paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylase; r = 0.76, p =.004). Recombinant CYP2C8 had the highest enzymatic activity toward zopiclone metabolism into both its metabolites, followed by CYP2C9 and 3A4. CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in zopiclone metabolism in vitro, and CYP2C8 contributes significantly to ND-Z formation. (+info)
Extensive metabolism of diltiazem and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of desacetyl-diltiazem (M1) by rat jejunum in vitro.
The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate both the intestinal metabolism and transport of diltiazem (DTZ) and its major metabolites in rat jejunum. Metabolism experiments were performed with everted sacs, whereas sheets mounted in a symmetrical twin chamber system were used in transport studies. DTZ was rapidly desacetylated by the rat jejunum to the principle metabolite desacetyl-diltiazem (M1). In addition, minor amounts of N-demethyl-diltiazem and desacetyl-N-demethyl-diltiazem were formed. Due to the rapid desacetylation, it proved difficult to study the transport of DTZ in this model. However, the primary metabolite M1 was shown to be subjected to P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated efflux. The flux rate of M1 was 6- to 7-fold higher from the serosal to the luminal compartment than in the opposite direction. Both coadministration of verapamil and Pgp monoclonal antibody dose dependently increased luminal-to-serosal flux and decreased serosal-to-luminal flux. In conclusion, rat jejunum metabolizes DTZ extensively in vitro, and the major primary metabolite M1 is subjected to Pgp-mediated efflux. (+info)