(1/423) Turn scanning by site-directed mutagenesis: application to the protein folding problem using the intestinal fatty acid binding protein.

We have systematically mutated residues located in turns between beta-strands of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), and a glycine in a half turn, to valine and have examined the stability, refolding rate constants and ligand dissociation constants for each mutant protein. IFABP is an almost all beta-sheet protein exhibiting a topology comprised of two five-stranded sheets surrounding a large cavity into which the fatty acid ligand binds. A glycine residue is located in seven of the eight turns between the antiparallel beta-strands and another in a half turn of a strand connecting the front and back sheets. Mutations in any of the three turns connecting the last four C-terminal strands slow the folding and decrease stability with the mutation between the last two strands slowing folding dramatically. These data suggest that interactions between the last four C-terminal strands are highly cooperative, perhaps triggered by an initial hydrophobic collapse. We suggest that this trigger is collapse of the highly hydrophobic cluster of amino acids in the D and E strands, a region previously shown to also affect the last stage of the folding process (Kim et al., 1997). Changing the glycine in the strand between the front and back sheets also results in a unstable, slow folding protein perhaps disrupting the D-E strand interactions. For most of the other turn mutations there was no apparent correlation between stability and refolding rate constants. In some turns, the interaction between strands, rather than the turn type, appears to be critical for folding while in others, turn formation itself appears to be a rate limiting step. Although there is no simple correlation between turn formation and folding kinetics, we propose that turn scanning by mutagenesis will be a useful tool for issues related to protein folding.  (+info)

(2/423) N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine a fluorescent probe for intracellular thiols and S-nitrosothiols.

The fluorescence emission spectrum of N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine was enhanced approximately 8-fold upon removal of the NO group either by photolysis or by transnitrosation with free thiols like glutathione. The fluorescence enhancement was reversible in that it could be quenched in the presence of excess S-nitrosoglutathione. Attempts were then made to utilize N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine as an intracellular probe of thiols/S-nitrosothiols. Fluorescence microscopy of fibroblasts in culture indicated that intracellular N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine levels reached a maximum within 5 min. N-Dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine fluorescence was directly proportional to intracellular GSH levels, directly determined with HPLC. N-Dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine preloaded cells were also sensitive to S-nitrosoglutathione uptake as the intracellular fluorescence decreased as a function of time upon exposure to extracellular S-nitrosoglutathione.  (+info)

(3/423) Ascaridia galli fatty acid-binding protein, a member of the nematode polyprotein allergens family.

A fatty acid-binding protein from the nematode Ascaridia galli was characterized. The gene was isolated and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. According to the deduced amino acid sequence A. galli fatty acid-binding protein (AgFABP) belongs to the family of nematode polyprotein allergens, as shown by Western blotting and PCR analysis with genomic DNA and cDNA. Both native and recombinant proteins bind fatty acids and retinoids with high affinity. The fluorescent fatty acid analogue 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) shows substantial changes in its emission spectrum when bound to AgFABP; this binding is reversed by fatty acids such as oleate. Moreover, changes of the intrinsic fluorescence of retinol and retinoic acid confirm retinoid binding activity of AgFABP. Fluorescence titration experiments with DAUDA indicate stoichiometric binding to a single binding site per monomer unit with affinities (Kd) of 1.6 and 1.8 x 10(-7) m for native and the recombinant protein, respectively. The apparent binding affinities of the nonfluorescent ligands were calculated in displacement experiments with DAUDA and values in the same range were obtained for myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic and retinoic acid. Additionally, the binding affinity of AgFABP for oleate and palmitate was determined by direct and indirect radiochemical analysis and the values obtained were similar to those from the fluorescent experiments. Both proteins show a preference for the binding of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but not for short chain (C3-C12) and branched fatty acids, cholesterol and tryptophan.  (+info)

(4/423) Divalent cation-, nucleotide-, and polymerization-dependent changes in the conformation of subdomain 2 of actin.

Conformational changes in subdomain 2 of actin were investigated using fluorescence probes dansyl cadaverine (DC) or dansyl ethylenediamine (DED) covalently attached to Gln41. Examination of changes in the fluorescence emission spectra as a function of time during Ca2+/Mg2+ and ATP/ADP exchange at the high-affinity site for divalent cation-nucleotide complex in G-actin confirmed a profound influence of the type of nucleotide but failed to detect a significant cation-dependent difference in the environment of Gln41. No significant difference between Ca- and Mg-actin was also seen in the magnitude of the fluorescence changes resulting from the polymerization of these two actin forms. Evidence is presented that earlier reported cation-dependent differences in the conformation of the loop 38-52 may be related to time-dependent changes in the conformation of subdomain 2 in DED- or DC-labeled G-actin, accelerated by substitution of Mg2+ for Ca2+ in CaATP-G-actin and, in particular, by conversion of MgATP- into MgADP-G-actin. These spontaneous changes are associated with a denaturation-driven release of the bound nucleotide that is promoted by two effects of DED or DC labeling: lowered affinity of actin for nucleotide and acceleration of ATP hydrolysis on MgATP-G-actin that converts it into a less stable MgADP form. Evidence is presented that the changes in the environment of Gln41 accompanying actin polymerization result in part from the release of Pi after the hydrolysis of ATP on the polymer. A similarity of this change to that accompanying replacement of the bound ATP with ADP in G-actin is discussed.  (+info)

(5/423) Interactive binding to the two principal ligand binding sites of human serum albumin: effect of the neutral-to-base transition.

The relationship between the two principal ligand binding sites, sites I and II, on human serum albumin (HSA) was quantitatively and qualitatively examined by equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Among the three subsite markers to site I, only the binding of dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA), which is a subsite Ib marker (K. Yamasaki et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1295 (1996) 147), was inhibited by the simultaneous binding of a site II ligand, such as ibuprofen and diazepam. This indicates that, in contrast to subsite Ib, subsites Ia and Ic do not strongly interact with site II. The thermodynamic characteristics for the coupling reaction between DNSA and ibuprofen and between DNSA and diazepam, which gave positive coupling free energies and negative values for both coupling enthalpy and entropy, indicated that the reaction process was entropically driven. Increase of pH from 6.5 to 8.2 caused an increase in coupling constant and entropy for the mutual antagonism between DNSA and the site II ligands on binding to HSA. The site II ligand-induced red-shift of lambda(max) and solvent accessibility of DNSA in subsite Ib were decreased when the albumin molecule was isomerized from the neutral (N) to the base (B) conformation in the physiological pH region. Based on these findings, we conclude that a 'competitive' like strong allosteric regulation exists for the binding of these two ligands to the N conformer, whereas for the B conformer this interaction can be classified as nearly 'independent'. Since the distance between Trp-214, which resides within the site I subdomain, and Tyr-411, which is involved in site II, is increased by 6 A during the N-B transition (N.G. Hagag et al., Fed. Proc. 41 (1982) 1189), we propose a mechanism for the pH-dependent antagonistic binding between subsite Ib and site II, which involves the transmission of ligand-induced allosteric effects from one site to another site, modified by changes in the spatial relationship of sites I and II caused by the N-B transition.  (+info)

(6/423) A fluorescence energy transfer study of lecithin-cholesterol vesicles in the presence of phospholipase C.

We demonstrate Forster resonance energy transfer from dehydroergosterol to dansylated lecithin in lecithin-cholesterol vesicles and characterize the vesicles in the presence of the pro-nucleating enzyme, phospholipase C (PLC). Exposure to phospholipase C causes a temporary decrease in the dehydroergosterol to dansyl fluorescence ratio followed by an increase to and above the initial value. The temporary decrease in the fluorescence ratio results from an increase in the dansylated lecithin intensity that coincides with a dansyl blue shift. The extent of the blue shift correlates with the level of diacylglycerol generated in situ by PLC, suggesting an increased association between dansylated lecithin and cholesterol as membrane fluidity increases and membrane polarity decreases. The subsequent increase in the fluorescence ratio results from both an increase in the dehydroergsterol intensity and a concomitant decrease in the dansylated lecithin intensity of equal magnitude. This signifies a reduction in energy transfer from dehydroergosterol to dansylated lecithin and indicates an increased separation between the two fluorophores. The increase in the fluorescence ratio persists beyond the time scales for vesicle aggregation and fusion, as measured by turbidity, and precedes the onset of macroscopic cholesterol crystals observed with an optical microscope. Thus, the increased separation between dehydroergosterol and dansylated lecithin is consistent with a mechanism of cholesterol nucleation from the vesicles. Moreover, the onset and rate of increase in the fluorescence ratio correlate with the cholesterol:lecithin mole ratio of the vesicles. Fluorescence energy transfer from dehydroergosterol to dansylated lecithin therefore shows potential as a methodology for measuring cholesterol nucleation in model bile.  (+info)

(7/423) Enantioselective binding sites on bovine serum albumin to dansyl amino acids.

The enantioselective binding sites on bovine serum albumin were examined by HPLC using 19 racemic 5-N, N-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonyl derivatives of alpha-amino acids (dansyl amino acids) as chiral probes. On a bovine serum albumin bonded chiral stationary phase, seven L-forms eluted faster than their D-forms, while ten D-forms eluted before their L-forms. It was speculated that either two classes or two different binding sites exist on bovine serum albumin which can be distinguished by N-dansyl-L-proline and N-dansyl-D-norvaline. This was confirmed by fluorometric experiments where non-fluorescent 1-naphthalenesulfonyl derivatives were synthesized and competitive adsorption experiments were performed.  (+info)

(8/423) Characterization of the ternary complex between Rab7, REP-1 and Rab geranylgeranyl transferase.

Geranylgeranylation is a post-translational modification of Rab GTPases that enables them to associate reversibly with intracellular membranes. Geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins is critical for their activity in controlling intracellular membrane transport. According to the currently accepted model for their action, newly synthesized Rab proteins are recruited by Rab escort protein (REP) and are presented to the Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RabGGTase) which covalentely modifies the Rab protein with two geranylgeranyl moieties. After prenylation, the Rab protein remains in complex with REP and is delivered to the target membrane by the latter. In this work, we show that RabGGTase can form a stable complex with Rab7-REP in the absence of its lipid substrate geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. In order to characterize this interaction, we developed three fluorescence assays reporting on the interaction of RabGGTase with the Rab7-REP complex. For this interaction we determined a Kd value of about 120 nM. Association of RabGGTase with the Rab7-REP complex occurs with a rate constant of approximately 108 M-1 x s-1. We demonstrate that the state of the nucleotide bound to Rab7 does not influence the affinity of RabGGTase for the Rab7-REP-1 complex. Finally, we address the issue of substrate specificity of RabGGTase. Titration experiments demonstrate that, in contrast with farnesyl transferase, RabGGTase does not recognize a defined C-terminal sequence motif. Experiments using Rab7 mutants in which the last 16 amino acids were either mutated or truncated revealed that the distal part of the C-terminus makes only a limited contribution to the binding affinity between RabGGTase and the Rab7-REP-1 complex. This demonstrates the functional dissimilarity between RabGGTase and geranylgeranyl transferase I and farnesyl transferase, which interact specifically with the C-terminus of their substrates. Based on these experiments, we propose that RabGGTase recognizes the overall structure arising from the association of Rab and REP and then 'scans' the flexible C-terminus to position the proximal cysteines into the active site.  (+info)