Reduction cranioplasty for macrocephaly. Two case reports.
Multi-stage reduction cranioplasty was performed on two children with severe macrocephaly secondary to hydrocephalus. One patient underwent a four-stage operation, and the other underwent a two-stage operation. The postoperative course of both patients was uneventful. Reduction cranioplasty improved quality of life for both patients, and good cosmetic results were achieved. Reduction cranioplasty is effective for the treatment of macrocephaly, and multi-stage surgery can reduce the associated risks. (+info)
Midline cerebellar cystic schwannoma : a case report.
An extremely unusual case of a cystic schwannoma in the region of the inferior vermis and posterior to the fourth ventricle in a fifteen year old boy is reported. The cystic tumour caused partial obstruction to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from fourth ventricle and resulted in development of supratentorial hydrocephalus. On investigations, the schwannoma simulated a Dandy-Walker cyst. The boy presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. On surgery, the lesion was not arising from any cranial nerve, nor was it attached to brain parenchyma, blood vessel or to the dura. The possible histogenesis of the cystic schwannoma in a rare location is discussed. (+info)
Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with occipital meningocele and spinal lipoma--case report.
A neonate presented with Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with occipital meningocele and spinal lipoma, manifesting as soft masses on the skull and lumbosacral regions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large posterior fossa cyst between the fourth ventricle and occipital meningocele, but the aqueduct was patent and there was no sign of hydrocephalus. A cyst-peritoneal shunt was emplaced at the age of 8 days followed by partial removal of the spinal lipoma and untethering of the cord at the 3 months. Follow-up examination of age 3 years found almost normal development, although the cyst still persisted. (+info)
Neurodevelopmental outcome after antenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities.
Posterior fossa abnormalities are sonographically diagnosable in the fetus. Anomalies of this region include Dandy-Walker malformation, enlarged cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst. Despite prenatal diagnosis, the uncertainties related to natural history and neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors make patient counseling difficult. The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of these lesions and elucidate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors in prenatally diagnosed posterior fossa abnormalities. Fifteen cases of posterior fossa abnormalities were reviewed. Antenatal diagnoses of Dandy-Walker malformation was made in 13 of these cases, arachnoid cyst in one case, and enlarged cisterna magna in one case. Hydrocephalus was present in 66% of patients. The sonographic diagnosis was concordant with the pathologic or neonatal radiologic diagnosis in 13 of 15 cases. Seven fetuses (47%) exhibited additional cranial or extracranial anomalies. A karyotypic abnormality (trisomy 18) was found in one of 15 cases of posterior fossa abnormalities. Neurodevelopmental delay was present in 80% of survivors with follow-up study to 4 years of age. Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities is highly accurate, yet the differential diagnosis can be challenging. Cognitive and psychomotor developmental delays remain commonplace despite early diagnosis and treatment. The approach with families in cases of prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities should include a search for additional central nervous system and extra-central nervous system anomalies in the fetus and counseling of parents regarding potential adverse outcome for survivors. (+info)
Dandy-Walker syndrome successfully treated with cystoperitoneal shunting--case report.
A neonate presented with Dandy-Walker syndrome manifesting as a large posterior cranial fossa cyst, aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis, and elevation of the confluence of the sinuses but without hydrocephalus. A cystoperitoneal shunt was placed at one month after birth. The cyst diminished in size, and marked development of the cerebellar hemispheres and descent of the confluence of sinuses were observed, but not vermis development. The primary pathology of Dandy-Walker syndrome is posterior cranial fossa cyst formation due to passage obstruction in the fourth ventricle exit area and aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis. The first choice of treatment in patients with Dandy-Walker syndrome in whom the cerebral aqueduct is open is cystoperitoneal shunt surgery, regardless of the presence or absence of hydrocephalus. (+info)
Cerebellar cortical dysplasia: MR findings in a complex entity.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging findings of cerebellar cortical dysplasia have been described as a new cerebellar malformation. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cerebellar cortical dysplasia with other cerebral malformations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 46 MR examinations of patients presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia, and facial deformities to identify abnormal folia or fissures or both within cerebellar hemispheres or vermis suggesting cortical dysplasia. RESULTS: Cerebellar cortical dysplasia was diagnosed in 17 patients. In two patients, it was isolated. In the remaining 15 patients, the malformation was associated with vermian malformation (n=11), cerebral cortical dysplasias (n=8), dysplasia of corpus callosum (n=6), and heterotopia (n=5). A widespread malformation of the posterior fossa was observed in eight patients (Dandy-Walker, Chiari II and III, and hypoplasia of brain stem). One patient with hypertrophied cerebellar hemisphere had minor enlargement of the right cerebral hemisphere and lateral ventricle. He also had nodular heterotopia, suggesting unilateral megalencephaly. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that cerebellar cortical dysplasias are common in cases with more widespread cerebral malformations. Technical progress providing high-quality tridimensional MR imaging of the cerebellum may explain its recent descriptions. (+info)
Dandy-Walker like malformation in a Fischer-344 rat.
A spontaneous cerebellar malformation was found in a 32-day-old male Fischer 344 rat. The cerebellar malformation was composed of a vermis defect and markedly dilated fourth ventricle. The cerebellar hemispheres were separated, with the left hemisphere being smaller than the right one. Degenerative/inflammatory lesions consisting of macrophage/lymphocyte infiltration, spheroidal calcium depositions, and astrocytic gliosis were seen adjacent to the cerebral aqueduct. Abnormally arranged hyperplastic ependymal cells were observed beneath the fourth ventricle in the medulla oblongata. The gross findings of the present case resemble those of the human Dandy-Walker malformation. While a precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, degenerative/inflammatory lesions in the present rat may be involved in the pathogenesis of this malformation. (+info)
The clivus-supraocciput angle: a useful measurement to evaluate the shape and size of the fetal posterior fossa and to diagnose Chiari II malformation.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain a nomogram of the clivus-supraocciput angle as a basis for the diagnosis of Chiari II malformation in fetuses with ventriculomegaly. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 310 normal pregnant women of 16-34 weeks' gestation. A mid-sagittal section of the fetal skull was obtained and the angle between the clivus and the supraocciput was measured. Forty-four fetuses with ventriculomegaly due to various causes (13 Chiari II malformation, 12 dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, 7 aqueductal stenosis, 6 borderline ventriculomegaly, 3 Dandy-Walker malformation, 2 porencephaly, 1 schizencephaly) were also included in the study and the values of the angle found in the pathological cases were compared with those found in the normal population. RESULTS: The clivus-supraocciput angle did not change during gestation and was almost constant with an average value of 79.3 +/- 6 degrees. All cases of Chiari II malformation showed a value below the 5th centile of our nomogram. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the posterior fossa and particularly the measurement of the clivus-supraocciput angle is a useful parameter to differentiate the various causes of fetal ventriculomegaly and particularly to recognize Chiari II malformation. (+info)