AIMS: To analyse bone fragments from rhinostomies of patients undergoing revisional dacryocystorhinostomy, looking for evidence of new bone formation. METHODS: 14 consecutive patients undergoing secondary lacrimal surgery were included in this study. In each case the existing rhinostomy was enlarged with bone punches, care being taken to use the punches with the jaws cutting perpendicularly to the edge of the rhinostomy, to allow accurate orientation of the specimens. The fragments were examined histologically for evidence of new bone formation. RESULTS: Histological sections showed fragments of bone with variable fibrosis at the edge of the rhinostomy. There was evidence of only very little new bone formation. CONCLUSION: This study has clearly shown that, at the edge of a rhinostomy, healing is predominantly by fibrosis and there is only very limited new bone formation. (+info)
AIMS: To utilise the improved optical qualities of newly developed lacrimal endoscopes and newly miniaturised laser fibres for diagnostic visualisation and laser surgery of the lacrimal system. METHODS: A KTP laser (wavelength 532 nm, 10 W energy) was used for laser assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with endolacrimal visualisation in 26 patients. Bicanalicular silicone intubation was placed in all patients for at least 3 months. RESULTS: After 3-9 months of follow up, the silicone tube in all 21 patients who underwent KTP laser DCR are still patent, three patients have eye watering in extremely cold weather and two required a conventional DCR. CONCLUSIONS: The KTP laser generates enough power to open the bony window in DCR surgery. Precise endolacrimal visualisation via a specially designed miniendoscope is essential for surgical success. (+info)
MR dacryocystography: comparison with dacryocystography and CT dacryocystography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several techniques have been used to image the nasolacrimal system, providing functional (dacryoscintigraphy) or morphologic (dacryocystography, CT dacryocystography [CTD]) information. Using gadopentetate dimeglumine-diluted solution injected into the lacrimal canaliculus or instilled into the conjunctival sac, we compared the sensitivity of MR dacryocystography (MRD) with that of CTD. METHODS: Eleven healthy volunteers and 25 patients affected by primary epiphora (21 patients) or postsurgical recurrent epiphora (four patients) underwent MRD after the topical administration of contrast media or cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus. The MR imaging findings were compared with irrigation and CTD data. All patients underwent surgical treatment (dacryocystorhinostomy), which served as a standard of reference for confirming the MRD findings. RESULTS: The topical administration of contrast-enhanced saline solution and the injection of contrast-enhanced saline solution after cannulation were always well tolerated. In healthy volunteers, outflow of contrast media was always revealed by MRD. Eight (32%) of 25 patients with epiphora had stenosis proximal to the lacrimal sac revealed by MRD, whereas 17 (68%) of 25 showed a dilated lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct stenosis, as confirmed by surgical findings. The findings of MRD after the topical administration of contrast medium and MRD after cannulation of the lacrimal canaliculus were comparable with irrigation or CTD data for all patients except one. CONCLUSION: In patients with epiphora, MR imaging performed after the topical administration of diluted contrast material can reveal stenosis of the lacrimal apparatus and can be added to the standard orbital imaging protocol when lacrimal system involvement is suspected. (+info)
Results of intraoperative mitomycin C application in dacryocystorhinostomy.
AIMS: To evaluate the long term results of intraoperative mitomycin C application in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery compared with results of the conventional procedure. METHODS: In this prospective randomised controlled study, a total of 88 eyes diagnosed with acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were randomly divided into a conventional DCR group and a mitomycin C group in which mitomycin C was used during DCR surgery. The surgical procedures in both groups were exactly the same, except that in the patients in the mitomycin C group, a piece of neurosurgical cottonoid soaked with 0.2 mg/ml mitomycin C was applied to the osteotomy site for 30 minutes. The results of the DCR surgeries were evaluated by objective findings such as irrigation and the height of tear meniscus and subjective symptoms by asking patients the condition of tearing improvement. RESULTS: Among the 44 eyes in the mitomycin C group, 95.5% of patients remained totally symptom free after 10 months of follow up; while in the conventional group, 70.5% of patients were reported to be symptom free and 18% of patients to have an improvement in their symptoms. There was a significant difference between these two groups. As far as objective findings were concerned, there were 41 eyes in the mitomycin C group classified as having a normal and one eye with moderate tear meniscus level, compared with 32 eyes and seven eyes, respectively, in the conventional group. There was also a significant difference between these two groups. The non-patency rate in the mitomycin C group is 4.5% compared with 11.4% in the conventional group. There were no complications such as abnormal nasal bleeding, mucosal necrosis, or infection except one patient with delayed wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative mitomycin C application is effective in increasing the success rate of DCR surgery in standard nasolacrimal duct obstruction, and no significant complications resulted from its use. (+info)
Value of nasal endoscopy and probing in the diagnosis and management of children with congenital epiphora.
BACKGROUND: Congenital nasolacrimal obstruction is usually the result of failure of canalisation of the distal end of the nasolacrimal duct. The most common outcome is spontaneous resolution, but some children do require surgical treatment by probing. Probing is a blind procedure with a recognised failure rate. METHODS: In 52 lacrimal systems of 40 children nasal endoscopy was combined with a "stepwise" systematic probing in an attempt to improve the outcome and reduce the number of repeat procedures. RESULTS: Combined nasal endoscopy and probing improved the understanding of outflow obstruction in young children. The success of the procedure depended upon the level of the obstruction within the outflow system. Formation of a false passage was seen in six cases (15%). The probe was rerouted under direct visualisation in these cases to form a functioning passage. Reasons for failure were identified in those who did not have a successful outcome and only one repeat procedure was required. CONCLUSION: Using nasal endoscopy the area of lacrimal outflow obstruction at the lower end of the nasolacrimal duct can be observed directly and it is possible to guide the progress of probing under direct vision. This gives better information about the nature of the obstruction, minimises the formation of false passages, and allows a wider range of treatment options under a single anaesthetic. (+info)
External dacryocystorhinostomy for the treatment of acquired partial nasolacrimal obstruction in adults.
AIM: To determine the long term success of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in adults with acquired partial nasolacrimal obstruction. METHODS: A retrospective study of 50 external dacryocystorhinostomies with silicone intubation performed for partial nasolacrimal obstruction, was undertaken. Preoperative lacrimal scintigraphy divided drainage abnormalities into presac or postsac delays. Postoperative success was determined by lacrimal patency to irrigation, a positive dye test on nasal endoscopy and subjective resolution of epiphora. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: A patent DCR system to irrigation and a positive dye test was achieved in 90% of procedures. At an average of 3.6 months' follow up, subjective success was reported in 84% of cases-91% for postsac and 67% for presac delays. At 3 years' follow up success had declined to 70% overall and to 80% and 47% for postsac and presac occlusions respectively. There was a statistically significant association between a presac delay and postoperative recurrence of epiphora, p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: External DCR with silicone intubation is an effective procedure for partial nasolacrimal obstruction. Presac delays do significantly less well and further studies are necessary to evaluate the best type of surgery for these patients. (+info)
Local anaesthetic endonasal endoscopic laser dacryocystorhinostomy: analysis of patients' acceptability and various factors affecting the success of this procedure.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endonasal endoscopic laser dacryocystorhinostomy is now a well established, effective approach to relieve nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Whereas attempts have been made to comment on the efficacy of the procedure, no study has been conducted to evaluate the acceptability of this procedure by those at the receiving end, ie, the patients. An attempt has been made in the present study to critically evaluate the procedure from the point of view of patients' acceptability and also to evaluate certain factors which may influence the success rate of this procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-six eyes from 40 patients underwent endonasal endoscopic laser dacryocystorhinostomy, performed by the same surgeon, over a period of 15 months. Various aspects of the procedure were evaluated by patients by filling out a simple questionnaire (Figure 1). In addition to recording patients' views, success of the procedure was confirmed by performing a postoperative sac washout in the clinic. Patients were also subdivided according to their age, duration of symptoms and history of previous surgical intervention. The data were statistically analysed using chi-square tests with the Yates correction. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who declared themselves completely cured was 65.22%. A partial resolution was felt by 23.91% of patients and no improvement was reported by 10.87% of patients. Forty-two out of the 46 eyes (91.3%) achieved anatomical success by the procedure, as shown by a postoperative sac washout performed in the clinic. Some of them, however, did not have complete resolution of their symptoms perhaps due to an additional factor of lacrimal pump dysfunction in these patients. During the procedure 60.86% of eyes felt no discomfort at all whereas 39.14% of eyes felt some discomfort at some point of time during the procedure (Table 1). When directly asked 86.12% of patients recommended the procedure (implying that the procedure had some good effect on their quality of life), 8.33% of patients did not recommend it and 5.55% of patients made no comments. Various factors affecting the success of this procedure were analysed (Table 2) and it was found that eyes which had no previous surgical intervention showed a complete cure rate which was significantly higher than that seen in eyes which had some sort of previous intervention (P = 0.0003); eyes with a short (<6 mths) duration of symptoms showed significantly higher success rates (P = 0.0098) in comparison to that shown by eyes with longer (>6 mths) duration of symptoms; and younger patients (<50 yrs) had a complete resolution rate much higher than patients over 50 yrs of age (P = 0.0309). CONCLUSION: The present study clearly shows that endonasal endoscopic laser DCR is an effective procedure, well tolerated and recommended by the patients. Discomfort during the procedure is not a major problem. Younger patients, with no previous surgical intervention and with short duration of symptoms are likely to be benefited the most. Though success rates are higher with external DCR, endonasal endoscopic laser DCR offers certain advantages over the external approach while keeping the option of external DCR open, if needed at a later date. (+info)
Analysis of the results of surgical endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: effect of the level of obstruction.
AIM: One of the main factors in determining success rate of lacrimal surgery is the level of obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system. There are only few reports which quantify this, and none on endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS: A case series of patients who had endoscopic DCR for anatomical obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system was performed. All patients who had lacrimal blockage referred to a district general hospital, irrespective of the level of blockage, had endoscopic DCR as the initial treatment by the authors. A total of 191 endoscopic DCRs were performed between 1994 and 1999. No other forms of lacrimal surgery were performed during this period. The level of the obstruction was assessed by the ophthalmologist before the operation and confirmed at surgery. All cases were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, and 96 cases were also reviewed 12 months after surgery. The outcome of the endoscopic DCR operation for each eye was categorised into complete cure, partial cure, or no improvement according to the degree of symptomatic relief following the operation. RESULTS: Complete relief from epiphora was achieved in 89% of cases overall at 6 months. The success rate in cases with lacrimal sac/duct obstruction (93%) or common canalicular blockage (88%) was comparable. In canalicular obstruction, however, the complete cure rate was lower at 54%. The benefit of the operation was maintained at 12 months. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the success rate of surgical (non-laser) endoscopic DCR is comparable to that reported for external DCR. Moreover, the technique is appropriate for initial treatment of patients with common canalicular or even canalicular obstruction. (+info)