Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/3814)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (2/3814)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (3/3814)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (4/3814)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (5/3814)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (6/3814)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (7/3814)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Coupling of coat assembly and vesicle budding to packaging of putative cargo receptors. (8/3814)

COPI-coated vesicle budding from lipid bilayers whose composition resembles mammalian Golgi membranes requires coatomer, ARF, GTP, and cytoplasmic tails of putative cargo receptors (p24 family proteins) or membrane cargo proteins (containing the KKXX retrieval signal) emanating from the bilayer surface. Liposome-derived COPI-coated vesicles are similar to their native counterparts with respect to diameter, buoyant density, morphology, and the requirement for an elevated temperature for budding. These results suggest that a bivalent interaction of coatomer with membrane-bound ARF[GTP] and with the cytoplasmic tails of cargo or putative cargo receptors is the molecular basis of COPI coat assembly and provide a simple mechanism to couple uptake of cargo to transport vesicle formation.  (+info)