Restriction endonucleases: general survey procedure and survey of gliding bacteria.
Among 120 strains of gliding bacteria which were screened for restriction endonucleases, 27 were found positive. Additionally, three strains carried enzymes able to release the supercoiled state of closed circular DNA. By using a new rapid method, restriction endonuclease activity was released by stirring about 0.5 g of cells (fresh weight) in a motor-driven glass homogenizer in buffer containing Triton X-101, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and mercaptoethanol. A yield from 60 to 80% of the total activity present in the cells was obtained with minimal destruction of the cells. The enzyme activity in the crude extract was measured semi-quantitatively by digestion of DNA and subsequent separation of the fragments on an agarose slab gel. The method appears to be generally applicable for the extraction of restriction endonucleases from gram-negative bacteria on an analytical scale and in a modified form for large-scale preparation of restriction enzymes. (+info)
Iso-branched 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids as characteristic lipid constituents of some gliding bacteria.
The fatty acids present in the total hydrolysates of several gliding bacteria (Myxococcus fulvus, Stigmatella aurantiaca, Cytophaga johnsonae, Cytophaga sp. strain samoa and Flexibacter elegans) were analyzed by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In addition to 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid, 15-methyl-hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and hexadecenoic acid, 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids comprised up to 50% of the total fatty acids. The majority was odd-numbered and iso-branched. Small amounts of even-numbered and unbranched fatty acids were also present. Whereas 2-hydroxy-15-methyl hexadecanoic acid was characteristic for myxobacteria, 2-hydroxy-13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-15-methyl-hexadecanoic acid were dominant in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter group. (+info)
Algoriphagus ratkowskyi gen. nov., sp. nov., Brumimicrobium glaciale gen. nov., sp. nov., Cryomorpha ignava gen. nov., sp. nov. and Crocinitomix catalasitica gen. nov., sp. nov., novel flavobacteria isolated from various polar habitats.
Several cold-adapted strains isolated from a variety of algal-rich Antarctic and Southern Ocean samples formed three distinct groups within the class Flavobacteria, phylogenetically distant from other cultivated species. The first taxon, designated Algoriphagus ratkowskyi gen. nov., sp. nov., was isolated from sea ice and from saline lake cyanobacterial mats and includes non-motile, strictly aerobic, saccharolytic rod-like or serpentine strains that were most closely related to the genus Cyclobacterium according to 16S rDNA sequence analysis (sequence similarity 0.85). The second taxon, designated Brumimicrobium glaciale gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea ice and from continental shelf sediment, formed gliding, rod-like cells that were facultatively anaerobic with a fermentative metabolism. The third taxon, designated Cryomorpha ignava gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Southern Ocean particulates and from quartz stone subliths, included strictly aerobic, pleomorphic rod-like cells. Brumimicrobium glaciale and Cryomorpha ignava were most closely allied with 'Microscilla aggregans var. catalatica', which, on the basis of its distinctive taxonomic traits, is also proposed as a new genus and species, Crocinitomix catalasitica gen. nov., sp. nov. It is proposed that the three genera Brumimicrobium, Cryomorpha and Crocinitomix belong to a new family, Cryomorphaceae fam. nov. (type genus Cryomorpha), as they possess generally similar morphological and ecophysiological characteristics and form a common and distinct clade within class FLAVOBACTERIA: (+info)
Hongiella mannitolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., Hongiella halophila sp. nov. and Hongiella ornithinivorans sp. nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment.
Three marine strains of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group, designated JC2050T, JC2051T and JC2052T, were obtained from a single sediment sample of getbol, the Korean tidal flat. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence studies revealed that the test strains were not closely related to any validly published genera and that these strains were only distantly related to the genus Cyclobacterium (88.7-91.2%). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the three getbol isolates formed a distinct monophyletic clade within the family Cytophagaceae. Physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data also indicated that these three getbol isolates differed significantly from members of other genera and were sufficiently different from each other to be recognized as separate species. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, a new genus, Hongiella gen. nov., is proposed, with three novel species, Hongiella mannitolivorans sp. nov. (type strain JC2050T=IMSNU 14012T=DSM 15301T), Hongiella halophila sp. nov. (type strain JC2051T=IMSNU 14013T=DSM 15292T) and Hongiella ornithinivorans sp. nov. (type strain JC2052T=IMSNU 14014T=DSM 15282T). Hongiella mannitolivorans is the type species of the genus. (+info)
Kordia algicida gen. nov., sp. nov., an algicidal bacterium isolated from red tide.
A bacterium (named OT-1(T)) that showed algicidal activity was isolated from sea water of Masan Bay, Korea, during an outbreak of red tide. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. No species with a validly published name showed >/=93 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain OT-1(T). The isolate had major amounts of iso-branched and 3-hydroxy iso-branched fatty acids and menaquinone 6 and a DNA G+C content of 34 mol%; these chemotaxonomic characters also supported the placement of the organism in the family Flavobacteriaceae. The strain was Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-gliding, flexirubin-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive and halophilic. Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions were obligately required for growth. The strain utilized various sugars as sole carbon sources and degraded gelatin, skimmed milk and starch. Several phenotypic characters can be used to differentiate the test strain from phylogenetically related marine bacterial genera. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, it is proposed that strain OT-1(T) should be assigned to the family Flavobacteriaceae as Kordia algicida gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is OT-1(T) (=KCTC 8814P(T)=NBRC 1000336(T)). (+info)
Phylogeny of the ring-forming bacterium Arcicella aquatica gen. nov., sp. nov. (ex Nikitin et al. 1994), from a freshwater neuston biofilm.
Arcicella aquatica NO-502(T), obtained from a neuston film on a freshwater lake and belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, is characterized by ring-forming cells. The bacterium is a strict aerobe, with optimal growth between 28 and 30 degrees C. Carbohydrates, but no organic acids or amino acids, are used as substrates. The G+C content of strain NO-502(T) is 34.5 mol%; its genome size is 2.9 x 10(9) Da. The genus Arcicella and its type species Arcicella aquatica (type strain NO-502(T)=LMG 21963(T)=CIP 107990(T)) are proposed, and descriptions of this genus and species are given. (+info)
Description of Algoriphagus aquimarinus sp. nov., Algoriphagus chordae sp. nov. and Algoriphagus winogradskyi sp. nov., from sea water and algae, transfer of Hongiella halophila Yi and Chun 2004 to the genus Algoriphagus as Algoriphagus halophilus comb. nov. and emended descriptions of the genera Algoriphagus Bowman et al. 2003 and Hongiella Yi and Chun 2004.
Four marine heterotrophic, aerobic, pink-pigmented and non-motile bacterial strains were isolated from sea water and algae collected in the Sea of Japan. In a polyphasic taxonomic study, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strains were phylogenetically highly related to Algoriphagus ratkowskyi LMG 21435T, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Further phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic analyses revealed that the strains represent three novel species of the genus Algoriphagus, for which the following names are proposed: Algoriphagus aquimarinus sp. nov., Algoriphagus chordae sp. nov. and Algoriphagus winogradskyi sp. nov., with type strains KMM 3958T (= LMG 21971T = CCUG 47101T), KMM 3957T (= LMG 21970T = CCUG 47095T) and KMM 3956T (= LMG 21969T = CCUG 47094T), respectively. The species Hongiella halophila Yi and Chun 2004 is transferred to the genus Algoriphagus as Algoriphagus halophilus comb. nov. because of its close phylogenetic relatedness to Algoriphagus species and analogous phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties. The above-mentioned novel species descriptions and species reclassification justify emended descriptions of the genera Algoriphagus and Hongiella. (+info)
Hongiella marincola sp. nov., isolated from sea water of the East Sea in Korea.
Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped strains, SW-2T and SW-26, were isolated from sea water of the East Sea in Korea. These organisms grew optimally at 37 degrees C and in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. They did not grow without NaCl or in the presence of >9 % (w/v) NaCl. Strains SW-2T and SW-26 were characterized chemotaxonomically as having MK-7 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and iso-C(15 : 0) as the major fatty acid. The DNA G + C content of strains SW-2T and SW-26 was 43 mol%. A neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SW-2T and SW-26 fell within the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group and formed a coherent cluster with Hongiella species. Strains SW-2T and SW-26 showed a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value of 99.9 % and a mean DNA-DNA relatedness level of 87 % to each other. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains SW-2T and SW-26 and the type strains of two Hongiella species ranged from 94.2 to 96.6 %. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strains SW-2T and SW-26 should be placed in the genus Hongiella as members of a novel species, for which the name Hongiella marincola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW-2T (= KCTC 12180T = DSM 16067T). (+info)