Balanced regulation of expression of the gene for cytochrome cM and that of genes for plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 in Synechocystis.
The cytM gene for cytochrome cM was previously found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the cytM gene was scarcely expressed under normal growth conditions but its expression was enhanced when cells were exposed to low temperature or high-intensity light. By contrast, the expression of the genes for cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin was suppressed at low temperature or under high-intensity light. These observations suggest that plastocyanin and/or cytochrome c6, which are dominant under non-stressed conditions, are replaced by cytochrome cM under the stress conditions. (+info
Q-Band resonance Raman investigation of turnip cytochrome f and Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c1.
The results of a comprehensive Q-band resonance Raman investigation of cytochrome c1 and cytochrome f subunits of bc1 and b6f complexes are presented. Q-band excitation provides a particularly effective probe of the local heme environments of these species. The effects of protein conformation (particularly axial ligation) on heme structure and function were further investigated by comparison of spectra obtained from native subunits to those of a site directed c1 mutant (M183L) and various pH-dependent species of horse heart cytochrome c. In general, all species examined displayed variability in their axial amino acid ligation that suggests a good deal of flexibility in their hemepocket conformations. Surprisingly, the large scale protein rearrangements that accompany axial ligand replacement have little or no effect on macrocycle geometry in these species. This indicates the identity and/or conformation of the peptide linkage between the two cysteines that are covalently linked to the heme periphery may determine heme geometry. (+info
Site-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome c6 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The heme protein possesses a negatively charged area that may be isofunctional with the acidic patch of plastocyanin.
This paper reports the first site-directed mutagenesis analysis of any cytochrome c6, a heme protein that performs the same function as the copper-protein plastocyanin in the electron transport chain of photosynthetic organisms. Photosystem I reduction by the mutants of cytochrome c6 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been studied by laser flash absorption spectroscopy. Their kinetic efficiency and thermodynamic properties have been compared with those of plastocyanin mutants from the same organism. Such a comparative study reveals that aspartates at positions 70 and 72 in cytochrome c6 are located in an acidic patch that may be isofunctional with the well known "south-east" patch of plastocyanin. Calculations of surface electrostatic potential distribution in the mutants of cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin indicate that the changes in protein reactivity depend on the surface electrostatic potential pattern rather than on the net charge modification induced by mutagenesis. Phe-64, which is close to the heme group and may be the counterpart of Tyr-83 in plastocyanin, does not appear to be involved in the electron transfer to photosystem I. In contrast, Arg-67, which is at the edge of the cytochrome c6 acidic area, seems to be crucial for the interaction with the reaction center. (+info
Nucleus-encoded precursors to thylakoid lumen proteins of Euglena gracilis possess tripartite presequences.
The complete presequences of the nucleus-encoded precursors to two proteins, cytochrome c6 and the 30-kDa protein of the oxygen-evolving complex, that reside in the thylakoid lumen of the chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis are presented. Sorting of these proteins involves translocation across four membranes, the three-membraned chloroplast envelope and the thylakoid membrane. The tripartite presequences show the structure: signal sequence transit sequence signal sequence. Three hydrophobic domains become apparent: two of them correspond to signal sequences for translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and the thylakoid membrane, respectively, whereas the third constitutes the stop-transfer signal contained in the long stroma-targeting part of the tripartite presequence. (+info
Induction of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts occurs via transcriptional regulation of Cpx1 mediated by copper response elements and increased translation from a copper deficiency-specific form of the transcript.
Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, encoded by a single nuclear gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, produces three distinct transcripts. One of these transcripts is greatly induced in copper-deficient cells by transcriptional activation, whereas the other forms are copper-insensitive. The induced form of the transcript was expressed coordinately with the cytochrome c6-encoding (Cyc6) gene, which is known to be transcriptionally regulated in copper-deficient cells. The sequence GTAC, which forms the core of a copper response element associated with the Cyc6 gene, is also essential for induction of the Cpx1 gene, suggesting that both are targets of the same signal transduction pathway. The constitutive and induced Cpx1 transcripts have the same half-lives in vivo, and all encode the same polypeptide with a chloroplast-targeting transit sequence, but the shortest one representing the induced form is a 2-4-fold better template for translation than are either of the constitutive forms. The enzyme remains localized to a soluble compartment in the chloroplast even in induced cells, and its abundance is not affected when the tetrapyrrole pathway is manipulated either genetically or by gabaculine treatment. (+info
Functional characterization of Chlamydomonas mutants defective in cytochrome f maturation.
We have altered the N terminus of cytochrome f by site-directed mutagenesis of the chloroplast petA gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We have replaced the tyrosine residue, Tyr(32), located immediately downstream of the processing site Ala(29)-Gln(30)-Ala(31) by a proline. Tyr(32) is the N terminus of the mature protein and serves as the sixth axial ligand to the heme iron. This mutant, F32P, accumulated different forms of holocytochrome f and assembled them into the cytochrome b(6)f complex. The strain was able to grow phototrophically. Our results therefore contradict a previous report (Zhou, J., Fernandez-Velasco, J. G., and Malkin, R. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 1-8) that a mutation, considered to be identical to the mutation described here, prevented cytochrome b(6)f assembly. A comparative functional characterization of F32P with F29L-31L, a site-directed processing mutant in which we had replaced the processing site by a Leu(29)-Gln(30)-Leu(31) sequence (2), revealed that both mutants accumulate high spin cytochrome f, with an unusual orientation of the heme and low spin cytochrome f with an alpha-band peak at 552 nm. Both hemes have significantly lower redox potentials than wild type cytochrome f. We attribute the high spin form to uncleaved pre-holocytochrome f and the low spin form to misprocessed forms of cytochrome f that were cleaved at a position different from the regular Ala(29)-Gln-Ala(31) motif. In contrast to F29L-31L, F32P displayed a small population of functional cytochrome f, presumably cleaved at Ala(29), with characteristics close to those of wild type cytochrome f. The latter form would account for cytochrome b(6)f turnover and photosynthetic electron transfer that sustain phototrophic growth of F32P. (+info
Extinction coefficients and midpoint potentials of cytochrome c(6) from the cyanobacteria Arthrospira maxima, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Synechocystis 6803.
Cytochrome c(6) is a soluble heme protein that serves as a photosynthetic electron transport component in cyanobacteria and algae, carrying electrons from the cytochrome bf complex to photosystem I. The rapid accumulation of cytochrome c(6) sequence data from a wide range of species, combined with significant advances in determining high resolution three-dimensional structures, provides a powerful database for investigating the relationship between structure and function. The fact that the gene encoding cytochrome c(6) can be readily modified in a number of species adds to the usefulness of cytochrome c(6) as a tool for comparative analysis. Efforts to relate cytochrome c(6) sequence information to structure, and structural information to function depend on knowledge of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cytochrome from different species. To this end we have determined the optical extinction coefficient, the oxidation/reduction midpoint potential, and the pH dependence of the midpoint potential of cytochrome c(6) isolated from three cyanobacteria, Arthrospira maxima, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Synechocystis 6803. (+info
Accumulation of pre-apocytochrome f in a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutant impaired in cytochrome c maturation.
Cytochrome c maturation involves heme transport and covalent attachment of heme to the apoprotein. The 5' end of the ccsB gene, which is involved in the maturation process and resembles the ccs1 gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was replaced by a chloramphenicol resistance cartridge in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting Delta(M1-A24) mutant lacking the first 24 ccsB codons grew only under anaerobic conditions. The mutant retained about 20% of the wild-type amount of processed cytochrome f with heme attached, apparently assembled in a functional cytochrome b(6)f complex. Moreover, the mutant accumulated unprocessed apocytochrome f in its membrane fraction. A pseudorevertant was isolated that regained the ability to grow under aerobic conditions. The locus of the second-site mutation was mapped to ccsB, and the mutation resulted in the formation of a new potential start codon in the intergenic region, between the chloramphenicol resistance marker and ccsB, in frame with the remaining part of ccsB. In this pseudorevertant the amount of holocyt f increased, whereas that of unprocessed apocytochrome f decreased. We suggest that the original deletion mutant Delta(M1-A24) expresses an N-terminally truncated version of the protein. The stable accumulation of unprocessed apocytochrome f in membranes of the Delta(M1-A24) mutant may be explained by its association with truncated and only partially functional CcsB protein resulting in protection from degradation. Our attempt to delete the first 244 codons of ccsB in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was not successful, suggesting that this would lead to a lack of functional cytochrome b(6)f complex. The results suggest that the CcsB protein is an apocytochrome chaperone, which together with CcsA may constitute part of cytochrome c lyase. (+info