Susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: influence of CYP1A1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms.
Although acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer, factors governing susceptibility to this disease have not yet been identified. As such, ALL offers a useful opportunity to examine the glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 genes in determining susceptibility to pediatric cancers. Both enzymes are involved in carcinogen metabolism and have been shown to influence the risk a variety of solid tumors in adults. To determine whether these genes played a similar role in childhood leukemogenesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 177 childhood ALL patients and 304 controls for the CYP1A1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes. We chose the French population of Quebec as our study population because of its relative genetic homogeneity. The GSTM1 null and CYP1A1*2A genotypes were both found to be significant predictors of ALL risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8). Those possessing both genotypes were at an even greater risk of developing the disease (OR = 3.3). None of the other alleles tested for proved to be significant indicators of ALL risk. Unexpectedly, girls carrying the CYP1A1*4 were significantly underrepresented in the ALL group (OR = 0.2), suggesting that a gender-specific protective role exists for this allele. These results suggest that the risk of ALL may indeed be associated with xenobiotics-metabolism, and thus with environmental exposures. Our findings may also explain, in part, why ALL is more prevalent among males than females. (+info)
G169R mutation diminishes the metabolic activity of CYP2D6 in Chinese.
The molecular basis of the reduced ability of a Chinese to metabolize debrisoquine was explored by sequencing all of the nine exons of the CYP2D6 gene. The subject has T188, A1846, T2938, and C4268 (CYP2D6*14) instead of C188, G1846, C2938, and G4268 as in wild-type subjects. XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated that the subject has a 29-kb allele and a gene deletion (11.5 kb) in another allele (CYP2D6*5). A CYP2D6*14 allele together with a CYP2D6*5 allele may cause the poor metabolism of the subject. T188, T2938, and C4268 are common haplotypes in Chinese-extensive metabolizers. The effect of G1846 to A mutation in CYP2D6 metabolism has not been reported. A polymerase chain reaction-based endonuclease digestion test was designed for the G/N1846 polymorphism and 124 Chinese subjects were screened. With DNA sequencing, two other subjects showed the heterozygous G/A1846 and have a relatively high metabolic ratio of debrisoquine hydroxylation. The site-directed mutagenesis was used to create recombinant CYP2D6 cDNA with T188, A1846, or C4268. The cDNA was then transfected into Rat-1 cells. The transfection was confirmed by Southern, Northern, and Western blots. Based on the same microsomal protein level, the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D6(T188) or CYP2D6(A1846) was significantly lower than that of the wild-type CYP2D6. P34S mutation (C188 to T) significantly decreased CYP2D6 activity. G169R mutation (G1846 to A) also decreased CYP2D6 activity and may further reduce the metabolic activity of CYP2D6 protein with P34S, R296C, and S486T mutations. (+info)
CYP2D6 polymorphism in a Gabonese population: contribution of the CYP2D6*2 and CYP2D6*17 alleles to the high prevalence of the intermediate metabolic phenotype.
AIMS: To determine the molecular basis of the intermediate extensive metaboliser (EM) CYP2D6 phenotype in healthy Gabonese subjects. METHODS: The CYP2D6 phenotype of 154 healthy Gabonese subjects was assessed by giving the subject a single dose of 30 mg dextromethorphan, and collecting their urine for the next 8 h. The CYP2D6 genotype was determined for 50 individuals of the EM phenotypic group by Southern blotting and various PCR-based procedures aimed at identifying different CYP2D6 alleles. RESULTS: We found that in the studied Gabonese population, as compared with a French population, there is significantly higher frequency of intermediate EM phenotype having lower frequency of CYP2D6 PM alleles. To clarify this discrepancy phenotype-genotype relationship was studied. We found that the CYP2D6*17 and CYP2D6*2 alleles, prevalent in this black population, are characterised by their low capacity for dextromethorphan demethylation. Our data also show that the CYP2D6*1 allele is associated with the highest in vivo activity followed by the CYP2D6*2 allele and then the CYP2D6*17 allele. CONCLUSIONS: The higher frequencies of the CYP2D6*2 and CYP2D6*17 alleles than the CYP2D6*1 allele account for the high frequency of the intermediate EM phenotype in this black population. The polymorphism of the CYP2D6 enzyme activity in African populations could have important implications for use of drugs that are substrates for CYP2D6 and have a narrow therapeutic window. (+info)
Improved reliability of the rapid microtiter plate assay using recombinant enzyme in predicting CYP2D6 inhibition in human liver microsomes.
A higher throughput method of screening for the inhibition of recombinant CYP2D6 using a microtiter plate (MTP) assay was evaluated using 62 new chemical entities and compared to data from the dextromethorphan O-demethylase assay in human liver microsomes (HLM). The IC50 values for the two assays closely matched for 53 compounds (85%). Six of the variant nine compounds had higher IC50 values with the recombinant enzyme, whereas three had lower IC50 values with the recombinant enzyme. When the inhibition with the recombinant enzyme was determined at various time points, the IC50 values increased as the duration of the incubation increased for the six compounds with higher IC50 values in the MTP assay. The IC50 values at 10 min matched more closely the IC50 values in HLM (95% compared with 85%). For three compounds that showed comparable IC50 values in the two assays, and the three compounds with lower IC50 values in the MTP assay, the IC50 values did not change over time. These results suggest that the six compounds that showed higher IC50 values in the MTP assay at 45 min are substrates for CYP2D6. Using known CYP2D6 substrates, a similar phenomenon was observed, i.e., inhibition curves shifted to higher IC50 values as incubation time increased. These results indicate that the higher throughput MTP assay is more comparable to HLM if the IC50 values are determined at 10 min rather than the recommended 45 min. Furthermore, data acquisition at multiple time points may indicate if a compound is a potential substrate or metabolism/mechanism-based inhibitor for the enzyme. (+info)
O- and N-demethylation of venlafaxine in vitro by human liver microsomes and by microsomes from cDNA-transfected cells: effect of metabolic inhibitors and SSRI antidepressants.
The biotransformation of venlafaxine (VF) into its two major metabolites, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) was studied in vitro with human liver microsomes and with microsomes containing individual human cytochromes from cDNA-transfected human lymphoblastoid cells. VF was coincubated with selective cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors and several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to assess their inhibitory effect on VF metabolism. Formation rates for ODV incubated with human microsomes were consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics for a single-enzyme mediated reaction with substrate inhibition. Mean parameters determined by non-linear regression were: Vmax = 0.36 nmol/min/mg protein, K(m) = 41 microM, and Ks 22901 microM (Ks represents a constant which reflects the degree of substrate inhibition). Quinidine (QUI) was a potent inhibitor of ODV formation with a Ki of 0.04 microM, and paroxetine (PX) was the most potent SSRI at inhibiting ODV formation with a mean Ki value of 0.17 microM. Studies using expressed cytochromes showed that ODV was formed by CYP2C9, -2C19, and -2D6. CYP2D6 was dominant with the lowest K(m), 23.2 microM, and highest intrinsic clearance (Vmax/K(m) ratio). No unique model was applicable to the formation of NDV for all four livers tested. Parameters determined by applying a single-enzyme model were Vmax = 2.14 nmol/min/mg protein, and K(m) = 2504 microM. Ketoconazole was a potent inhibitor of NDV production, although its inhibitory activity was not as great as observed with pure 3A substrates. NDV formation was also reduced by 42% by a polyclonal rabbit antibody against rat liver CYP3A1. Studies using expressed cytochromes showed that NDV was formed by CYP2C9, -2C19, and -3A4. The highest intrinsic clearance was attributable to CYP2C19 and the lowest to CYP3A4. However the high in vivo abundance of 3A isoforms will magnify the importance of this cytochrome. Fluvoxamine (FX), at a concentration of 20 microM, decreased NDV production by 46% consistent with the capacity of FX to inhibit CYP3A, 2C9, and 2C19. These results are consistent with previous studies that show CYP2D6 and -3A4 play important roles in the formation of ODV and NDV, respectively. In addition we have shown that several other CYPs have important roles in the biotransformation of VF. (+info)
CYP2D6 genotype and the incidence of anal and vulvar cancer.
The risks of anal and vulvar cancer are strongly related to cigarette smoking. Smokers are exposed to a substantial quantity of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK is present in the mucus of the female genital tract. The enzyme debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) activates NNK and is present in foreskin kerotinocytes and cervical epithelial cells. A polymorphism for the gene CYP2D6 exists, and persons who possess alleles that are associated with reduced levels of CYP2D6 activity might be expected to be at a relatively lower risk of cancers arising from NNK exposure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to examine the association of CYP2D6 genotype and the incidence of anal and vulvar cancer among cigarette smokers in western Washington State. We tested for 14 alleles (*1-*12, *14, and *17) among cases (25 men and 43 women with anal cancer, 64 women with vulvar cancer) and controls (30 men and 110 women). Contrary to the hypothesis, cases were not less likely than controls to have one (43.9 versus 40.7%) or two (6.8 versus 4.3%) inactivating alleles (*3, *4, *5, *6, *7, *8, *11, or *12). There was a suggestion that, if anything, the combined anal and vulvar cancer risk increased (rather than decreased) with an increasing number of CYP2D6 inactivation alleles: odds ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-2.0 with one inactivating allele; odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.6-5.4 with two inactivating alleles. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that cigarette smokers who carry the CYP2D6 alleles that result in a low activity phenotype have a decreased risk of anogenital cancer. (+info)
Competition between cytochrome P-450 isozymes for NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase affects drug metabolism.
NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is essential for the catalytic activity of cytochrome P-450 (P-450). On a molar basis, the amount of P-450 exceeds that of CPR in human liver. In this study, we investigated whether drug-drug interactions can occur as a result of competition between P-450 isozymes for this ancillary protein. For this purpose, combinations of P-450 isozymes were coexpressed together with P-450 reductase in Escherichia coli. We show that testosterone inhibited the CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity in bacterial membranes containing both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 but not in membranes containing CYP2D6 alone. Conversely, bufuralol inhibited the CYP3A4-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity in bacterial membranes containing both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 but not in membranes containing only CYP3A4. In each case, inhibition was seen even at a P-450 to P-450 reductase ratio of 1.9:1, which is more favorable than the ratio of 4 reported for human liver. The physiological significance of this mechanism was demonstrated by the observation that testosterone inhibited several prototypical P-450 enzyme activities, such as bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase, coumarin 7-hydroxylase, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, in human liver microsomes, but not if tested against a panel of bacterial membranes containing the human P-450 isozymes that mainly catalyze these reactions. (+info)
Effect of the CYP2D6*10 genotype on venlafaxine pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.
AIMS: Interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine, a new antidepressant, were shown during early clinical trials in Japan. Venlafaxine is metabolized mainly by CYP2D6 to an active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV). Therefore, the influence of the CYP2D6 genotypes on venlafaxine pharmacokinetics was examined in a Japanese population. METHODS: Twelve adult Japanese men in good health participated in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral lymphocytes, and the CYP2D6 genotypes were determined by codon 188C/T, 1934G/A, 2938G/A and 4268G/C mutations using endonuclease tests based on PCR and by Xba I-RFLP analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following 3 groups (n=4 in each group); Group1: CYP2D6*10/*10, *5/*10, Group2: CYP2D6*1/*10, *2/*10 and Group3: CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*2. Venlafaxine (25 mg, n=6; 37.5 mg, n=6) was administered orally at 09.00 h following an overnight fast. Plasma concentrations of venlafaxine and ODV were monitored by h.p.l.c. for 48 h. RESULTS: The Cmax and AUC of venlafaxine were 184% and 484% higher in the group 1 subjects than in the group 3 subjects, and 101% and 203% higher in the group 1 than in the group 2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CYP2D6*10 influences the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine in a Japanese population. (+info)