(1/164) Rickettsia prowazekii transports UMP and GMP, but not CMP, as building blocks for RNA synthesis.
Rickettsia prowazekii, the etiological agent of epidemic typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and is apparently unable to synthesize ribonucleotides de novo. Here, we show that as an alternative, isolated, purified R. prowazekii organisms transported exogenous uridyl- and guanylribonucleotides and incorporated these labeled precursors into their RNA in a rifampin-sensitive manner. Transport systems for nucleotides, which we have shown previously and show here are present in rickettsiae, have never been reported in free-living bacteria, and the usual nucleobase and nucleoside transport systems are absent in rickettsiae. There was a clear preference for the monophosphate form of ribonucleotides as the transported substrate. In contrast, rickettsiae did not transport cytidylribonucleotides. The source of rickettsial CTP appears to be the transport of UMP followed by its phosphorylation and the amination of intrarickettsial UTP to CTP by CTP synthetase. A complete schema of nucleotide metabolism in rickettsiae is presented that is based on a combination of biochemical, physiological, and genetic information. (+info)
(2/164) Plant-exuded choline is used for rhizobial membrane lipid biosynthesis by phosphatidylcholine synthase.
Phosphatidylcholine is a major lipid of eukaryotic membranes, but found in only few prokaryotes. Enzymatic methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine by phospholipid N-methyltransferase was thought to be the only biosynthetic pathway to yield phosphatidylcholine in bacteria. However, mutants of the microsymbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium (Rhizobium) meliloti, defective in phospholipid N-methyltransferase, form phosphatidylcholine in wild type amounts when choline is provided in the growth medium. Here we describe a second bacterial pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis involving the novel enzymatic activity, phosphatidylcholine synthase, that forms phosphatidylcholine directly from choline and CDP-diacylglycerol in cell-free extracts of S. meliloti. We further demonstrate that roots of host plants of S. meliloti exude choline and that the amounts of exuded choline are sufficient to allow for maximal phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in S. meliloti via the novel pathway. (+info)
(3/164) Bipartite modular structure of intrinsic, RNA hairpin-independent termination signal for phage RNA polymerases.
The phage SP6 RNA and T7 RNA polymerases, which are closely related to each other, intrinsically stop at two signals in the Escherichia coli rrnB terminator t1 through different mechanisms. The downstream signal functioned without an RNA secondary structure formation, in which the signal was still active when separated from the upstream, hairpin-forming signal, and IMP incorporation enhanced its efficiency. The sequence from -15 to -1 was essential for the downstream, hairpin-independent termination (at -1). The results of SP6 transcription with heteroduplex templates and ribonucleotide analogs suggested that the downstream signal consists of two functionally different modules. The effects of iodo-CMP or IMP incorporation into RNA on termination efficiency were not sensitive to incorporation at -9 and upstream, but they were reactive to incorporation at -6 and -2, as reflected by strong iodo-rC:dG and weak rI:dC base pairing. Thus, the downstream module (from -8 approximately -6 to -1) appears to facilitate the release of RNA. Mismatches in the templates at -6 to +1 allowed for efficient termination, unlike those upstream of the sequence. The upstream module (from -15 to -9 approximately -7) functions as a duplex. Pausing of the SP6 elongation complex at the termination site was detected when RNA release was suppressed by the incorporation of 5-bromo-UMP, and it was dependent on the upstream module. Results of single-round SP6 transcriptions using 3'-deoxynucleotides and immobilized templates indicated that RNA was not released from the elongation complexes halted at the termination site on the template variants carrying mutations in the upstream or downstream module, whereas such complexes on the wild type template were dissociated. Thus, halting or simple pausing was not sufficient for termination even when the downstream module was intact. The upstream module appears to mediate such conformation change necessary for termination. (+info)
(4/164) Muscarinic M1 receptors activate phosphoinositide turnover and Ca2+ mobilisation in rat sympathetic neurones, but this signalling pathway does not mediate M-current inhibition.
1. The relationship between muscarinic receptor activation, phosphoinositide turnover, calcium mobilisation and M-current inhibition has been studied in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurones in primary culture. 2. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation was measured by the accumulation of [3H]-cytidine monophosphate phosphatidate (CMP-PA) after incubation with [3H]-cytidine in the presence of Li+. The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine methiodide (oxo-M) stimulated PLC in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of approximately 3.5 microM. 3. The concentration-response curve for oxo-M was shifted to the right by a factor of about 10 by pirenzepine (100 nM), suggesting a pKB (-log of the apparent dissociation constant) of 7.9 +/- 0.4, while himbacine (1 microM) shifted the curve by a factor of about 13 (pKB approximately 7.1 +/- 0.6). This indicates involvement of the M1 muscarinic receptor in this response. 4. The accumulation of CMP-PA was localised by in situ autoradiography to SCG principal neurones, with no detectable signal in glial cells present in the primary cultures. 5. The ability of oxo-M to release Ca2+ from inositol(1,4, 5)trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive stores was determined by fura-2 microfluorimetry of SCG neurones voltage clamped in perforated patch mode. Oxo-M failed to evoke intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) mobilisation in SCG neurones voltage clamped at -60 mV, but produced a significant Ca2+i rise (67 +/- 15 nM, n = 9) in cells voltage clamped at -25 mV. 6. Thapsigargin (0.5-1 microM) caused a 70 % inhibition of the oxo-M-induced Ca2+i increase, indicating its intracellular origin, while oxo-M-induced inhibition of M-current in the same cells was unaffected by thapsigargin. 7. Our results do not support the involvement of InsP3-sensitive calcium mobilisation in M-current inhibition. (+info)
(5/164) Alterations in ribonuclease activities in the plasma, spleen, and thymus of tumor-bearing mice.
Six transplantable murine tumor models were evaluated for changes in RNase activity. This study was conducted with spleen and thymus homogenates, as well as with plasma collected from tumor-bearing mice. Nuclease activity directed against the synthetic substrates, polyadenylic acid, polyuridylic acid, and polycytidylic acid, was measured and the data obtained for tumor-bearing animals were compared to their normal counterparts. Elevated activity against polyuridylic acid was observed in the plasma of all tumor-bearing mice. Although not as all inclusive, RNase levels in both the spleen and thymus were generally altered as well. The observance of unilateral changes in nuclease activity directed against the synthetic substrates demonstrated that, in most cases, two or more enzymes were being detected. The assay may have some eventual value in the monitoring of cancer (+info)
(6/164) Use of ribonuclease VI from Artemia for the determination of cytidine 2'-phosphate.
An enzymatic method has been developed for the quantitative measurement of cytidine 2'-phosphate. Concentrations in the micromolar range can be measured even in the presence of at least five times greater concentrations of a variety of related nucleotides. The method is also suitable for detection of the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC 184.108.40.206) and its discrimination from the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase (EC 220.127.116.11). (+info)
(7/164) Role of exogenous inositol and phosphatidylinositol in glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis of GP49 by Giardia lamblia.
Although Giardia lamblia trophozoites are unable to carry out de novo phospholipid synthesis, they can assemble complex glycophospholipids from simple lipids and fatty acids acquired from the host. Previously, we have reported that G. lamblia synthesizes GP49, an invariant surface antigen with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. It is therefore possible that myo-inositol (Ins), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and other GPI precursors are obtained from the dietary products of the human small intestine, where the trophozoites colonize. In this report, we have investigated the role of exogenous Ins and PI on GPI anchor synthesis by G. lamblia. The results demonstrate that [(3)H]Ins and PI internalized by trophozoites, metabolically transformed into GlcN(acyl)-PI and downstream GPI molecules. Further investigations suggest that G. lamblia expresses cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-dependent (Mg(2+)-stimulated) and independent (Mn(2+)-stimulated) inositol headgroup exchange enzymes, which are responsible for exchanging free Ins with cellular PI. We observed that 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-myo-inositol (3-F-Ins) and 1-deoxy-1-F-scyllo-Ins (1-F-scyllo-Ins), which are considered potent inhibitors of Mn(2+)-stimulated headgroup exchange enzyme, inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]Ins into PI and GPI molecules significantly, suggesting that CMP-independent (Mn(2+)-stimulated) exchange enzyme may be important for these reactions. However, 3-F-Ins and 1-F-scyllo-Ins were not effective in blocking the incorporation of exogenously supplied [(3)H]PI into GPI glycolipids. Thus, it can be concluded that G. lamblia can use exogenously supplied [(3)H]PI and [(3)H]Ins to synthesize GPI glycolipids of GP49; while PI is directly incorporated into GPI molecules, free Ins is first converted into PI by headgroup exchange enzymes, and this newly formed PI participates in GPI anchor synthesis. (+info)
(8/164) A 3'-5' exonuclease in human leukemia cells: implications for resistance to 1-beta -D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and 9-beta -D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine 5'-monophosphate.
A 3'-5' exonuclease that excises the nucleotide analogs 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine monophosphate and 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine 5'-monophosphate incorporated at 3' ends of DNA was purified from the nuclei of: 1) primary human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, 2) primary and established human acute myeloblastic leukemia cells, and 3) lymphocytes obtained from healthy individuals. The activity of this nuclear exonuclease (exoN) is elevated approximately 6-fold in 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine-resistant leukemia cells as compared with drug-sensitive cells, and it differs between two healthy individuals and among three leukemia patients. exoN is a 46-kDa monomer, requires 50 mm KCl and 1 mm magnesium for optimal activity, and shows a preference for single-stranded over duplex DNA. Its physical and enzymatic properties indicate that exoN is a previously uncharacterized enzyme whose activity may confer resistance to clinical nucleoside analogs in leukemia cells. (+info)