Mutational analysis of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC1). structure-function relationships of RNA editing and dimerization.
APOBEC1 is the catalytic subunit of an enzyme complex that mediates apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA editing. It dimerizes in vitro and requires complementation factor(s) for its editing activity. We have performed a systematic analysis of the structure-functional relationship of APOBEC1 by targeted mutagenesis of various sequence motifs within the protein. Using in vitro RNA editing assay, we found that basic amino acid clusters at the amino-terminal region R15R16R17 and R33K34, are essential for apoB mRNA editing. Mutation of R15R16R17 to K15K16K17 and mutation of R33K34 simultaneously to A33A34 almost completely abolished in vitro editing activity. The carboxy-terminal region of APOBEC1 contains a leucine-rich motif. Deletion analysis of this region indicates that residues 181 to 210 are important for in vitro apoB mRNA editing. Single amino acid substitutions demonstrate that L182, I185, and L189 are important residues required for normal editing function. Furthermore, the double mutant P190A/P191A also lost >90% of editing activity which suggests that a beta turn in this region of the molecule may be essential for proper functioning of APOBEC1. It was suggested that dimerization of APOBEC1 creates an active structure for deamination of apoB mRNA. When we examined the dimerization potential of truncated APOBEC1s using both amino and carboxy termini deletion mutants, we found that amino-terminal deletions up to residue A117 did not impair dimerization activity whereas carboxy-terminal deletions showed diminished dimerization. The systematic and extensive mutagenesis experiments in this study provide information on the role of various sequence motifs identified in APOBEC1 in enzyme catalysis and dimerization. (+info)
Ribosomal -1 frameshifting during decoding of Bacillus subtilis cdd occurs at the sequence CGA AAG.
During translation of the Bacillus subtilis cdd gene, encoding cytidine deaminase (CDA), a ribosomal -1 frameshift occurs near the stop codon, resulting in a CDA subunit extended by 13 amino acids. The frequency of the frameshift is approximately 16%, and it occurs both when the cdd gene is expressed from a multicopy plasmid in Escherichia coli and when it is expressed from the chromosomal copy in B. subtilis. As a result, heterotetrameric forms of the enzyme are formed in vivo along with the dominant homotetrameric species. The different forms have approximately the same specific activity. The cdd gene was cloned in pUC19 such that the lacZ' gene of the vector followed the cdd gene in the -1 reading frame immediately after the cdd stop codon. By using site-directed mutagenesis of the cdd-lacZ' fusion, it was shown that frameshifting occurred at the sequence CGA AAG, 9 bp upstream of the in-frame cdd stop codon, and that it was stimulated by a Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence located 14 bp upstream of the shift site. The possible function of this frameshift in gene expression is discussed. (+info)
RNA editing site recognition in higher plant mitochondria.
RNA editing is a process by which genomically encoded cytidines are converted to uridines in plant mitochondrial transcripts. This conversion usually changes the amino acid specified by a codon and converts an "aberrant" residue to the evolutionarily conserved amino acid. The selection of the edited cytidine is highly specific. The cis-acting sequences for editing site recognition have been examined in ribosomal protein S12 (rps12) transcripts and in transcripts for a second copy of an internal portion of the ribosomal protein S12 (rps12b). rps12b was created by recombination at 7 and 9 nucleotide sequences that included editing sites I and IV of rps12, thus affording an opportunity to study the editing of chimeric transcripts with rearrangement very near C to U editing sites. Rearrangements downstream of editing site IV did not affect the editing of that sequence, while rearrangement upstream of editing site I ablated editing at that cytidine residue. Secondary structure predictions indicated that RNA structure did not correlate with the editing of these substrates. These results taken together with other studies in the literature suggest that RNA editing site recognition is primarily dependent on the 5' flanking RNA sequence. (+info)
Specific expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a novel member of the RNA-editing deaminase family in germinal center B cells.
We have identified a novel gene referred to as activation-induced deaminase (AID) by subtraction of cDNAs derived from switch-induced and uninduced murine B lymphoma CH12F3-2 cells, more than 80% of which switch exclusively to IgA upon stimulation. The amino acid sequence encoded by AID cDNA is homologous to that of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC-1), a type of cytidine deaminase that constitutes a catalytic subunit for the apoB mRNA-editing complex. In vitro experiments using a glutathione S-transferase AID fusion protein revealed significant cytidine deaminase activity that is blocked by tetrahydrouridine and by zinc chelation. However, AID alone did neither demonstrate activity in C to U editing of apoB mRNA nor bind to AU-rich RNA targets. AID mRNA expression is induced in splenic B cells that were activated in vitro or by immunizations with sheep red blood cells. In situ hybridization of immunized spleen sections revealed the restricted expression of AID mRNA in developing germinal centers in which modulation of immunoglobulin gene information through somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination takes place. Taken together, these findings suggest that AID is a new member of the RNA-editing deaminase family and may play a role in genetic events in the germinal center B cell. (+info)
C-->U editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA in marsupials: identification and characterisation of APOBEC-1 from the American opossum Monodelphus domestica.
The C->U editing of RNA is widely found in plant and animal species. In mammals it is a discrete process confined to the editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA in eutherians and the editing of the mitochondrial tRNA for glycine in marsupials. Here we have identified and characterised apoB mRNA editing in the American opossum Monodelphus domestica. The apoB mRNA editing site is highly conserved in the opossum and undergoes complete editing in the small intestine, but not in the liver or other tissues. Opossum APOBEC-1 cDNA was cloned, sequenced and expressed. The encoded protein is similar to APOBEC-1 of eutherians. Motifs previously identified as involved in zinc binding, RNA binding and catalysis, nuclear localisation and a C-terminal leucine-rich domain are all conserved. Opossum APOBEC-1 contains a seven amino acid C-terminal extension also found in humans and rabbits, but not present in rodents. The opossum APOBEC-1 gene has the same intron/exon organisation in the coding sequence as the eutherian gene. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses and an editing assay indicate that no APOBEC-1 was expressed in the liver. Thus the far upstream promoter responsible for hepatic expression in rodents does not operate in the opossum. An APOBEC-1-like enzyme such as might be involved in C->U RNA editing of tRNA in marsupial mitochondria was not demonstrated. The activity of opossum APOBEC-1 in the presence of both chicken and rodent auxiliary editing proteins was comparable to that of other mammals. These studies extend the origins of APOBEC-1 back 170 000 000 years to marsupials and help bridge the gap in the origins of this RNA editing process between birds and eutherian mammals. (+info)
A prokaryotic-type cytidine deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression and functional characterization.
The gene and cDNA of an Arabidopsis thaliana cytidine deaminase (CDA) were cloned and sequenced. The gene, At-cda1, is located on chromosome 2 and is expressed in all plant tissues tested, although with quantitative differences. Expression analysis suggest that At-cda1 probably codes for the housekeeping cytidine deaminase of Arabidopsis. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein, At-CDA1, shows similar enzymatic and substrate specificities as conventional cytidine deaminases: it deaminates cytidine and deoxycytidine and is competitively inhibited by cytosine-containing compounds. Because the protein shows no affinity to RNA, it is not likely to be involved in RNA-editing by C-to-U deamination. When compared to cytidine deaminases from other organisms, it becomes clear that At-CDA1 is related, both in sequence and structure, to the CDA of E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria. The eubacterial nature of the Arabidopsis CDA suggests that it is an additional example of a plant gene of endosymbiotic origin. (+info)
Psoriasis upregulated phorbolin-1 shares structural but not functional similarity to the mRNA-editing protein apobec-1.
Earlier studies of psoriatic and normal primary keratinocytes treated with phorbol 12-myristate-1-acetate identified two low-molecular-weight proteins, termed phorbolin-1 (20 kDa; pI 6.6) and phorbolin-2 (17.6 kDa; pI 6.5). As a first step towards elucidating the role of these proteins in psoriasis, we report here the molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of phorbolin-1 and a related cDNA that codes for a protein exhibiting a similar amino acid sequence. The phorbolins were mapped to position 22q13 immediately centromeric to the c-sis proto-oncogene. Transient expression of the phorbolin-1 cDNA in COS cells and by in vitro transcription/translation, yielded polypeptides that comigrated with phorbolins-1 and -2. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 22% overall identity and a similarity of 44% of the phorbolins to apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme; however, recombinant-expressed phorbolin-1 exhibited no cytidine deaminase activity, using either a monomeric nucleoside or apolipoprotein B cRNA as substrate, and failed to bind an AU-rich RNA template. Whereas the precise function of the phorbolins remains to be elucidated, the current data suggest that it is unlikely to include a role in the post-transcriptional modification of RNA in a manner analogous to that described for apobec-1. (+info)
Molecular modelling of the biosynthesis of the RNA-editing enzyme APOBEC-1, responsible for generating the alternative forms of apolipoprotein B.
We discovered in 1987 that the shorter form of apolipoprotein B (B48) synthesized in the intestine is due to the action, previously unrecognized in mammalian cells, of an mRNA-editing process, and more recently we demonstrated that this was due to a specific enzyme (APOBEC-1) with cytidine deaminase activity. We show here, by sequence alignment, molecular modelling and mutagenesis, that APOBEC-1 is a cytidine deaminase, responsible for editing apoB mRNA, and that is related in crystal structure to the cytidine deaminase of Escherichia coli (ECCDA). The two enzymes are both homodimers with composite active sites formed with loops from each monomer. In the sequence of APOBEC-1, three gaps compared with ECCDA match the size and contour of the minimal RNA substrate. We propose a model in which the asymmetric binding of one active site to the substrate cytidine which is positioned by the downstream binding of the product uridine and that this helps to target the other active site for deamination. (+info)