Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation.
The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo. (+info)
Cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: a report of six cases.
Six patients with ankylosing spondylitis and features of a cauda equina syndrome are described. The myelographic findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of the disorder and its natural history. Present experience suggests that the cauda equina syndrome is a more common complication of ankylosing spondylitis than is usually thought. (+info)
Cystic lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of Waldeyer's ring origin.
We analysed in a retrospective study the frequency of cystic lymph node (LN) metastases in neck dissection specimens of 123 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in the palatine tonsils (62 M/14 F), the base of the tongue (38 M/5 F) and the nasopharynx (2 M/2 F). Eighty-two per cent of patients had metastases (64 tonsillar SCC, 33 base of tongue SCC and all four nasopharynx SCC) in 368 LN of a total 2298 sampled LN. Thirty-nine per cent of patients had exclusively solid metastases and 37% of patients had exclusively cystic metastases. A total of 62 patients had some signs of cyst formation in one or more metastatically affected LN (27 with only histological evidence of cyst formation with luminal diameters < 5 mm, 35 with clinically detectable cyst with luminal diameter > 5 mm). Cystic metastases were more common in patients with SCC of the base of the tongue (P = 0.005), while solitary clinically evident cystic metastasis with lumina > 5 mm were found exclusively in tonsillar carcinoma (P = 0.024). In comparison with solid metastases, cyst formation was associated with N-categories (N2b and N3, P = 0.005) in SCC of the base of the tongue origin. No such association was observed for tonsillar SCC (P = 0.65). The primary mechanism of cyst formation was cystic degeneration. (+info)
Laparoscopic management of benign solid and cystic lesions of the liver.
OBJECTIVE: The authors present their experience in the laparoscopic management of benign liver disease. The aim of the study is to analyze technical feasibility and evaluate immediate and long-term outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Indications for the laparoscopic management of varied abdominal conditions have evolved. Although the minimally invasive treatment of liver cysts has been reported, the laparoscopic approach to other liver lesions remains undefined. METHODS: Between September 1990 and October 1997, 43 patients underwent laparoscopic liver surgery. There were two groups of benign lesions: cysts (n = 31) and solid tumors (n = 12). Indications were solitary giant liver cysts (n = 16), polycystic liver disease (n = 9), hydatid cyst (n = 6), focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3), and adenoma (n = 9). Only solid tumors, hydatid cysts, and patients with polycystic disease and large dominant cysts located in anterior liver segments were included. All giant solitary liver cysts were considered for laparoscopy. Patients with cholangitis, cirrhosis, and significant cardiac disease were excluded. Data were collected prospectively. RESULTS: The procedures were completed laparoscopically in 40 patients. Median size was 4 cm for solid nodules and 14 cm for solitary liver cysts. Conversion occurred in three patients (7%), for bleeding (n = 2) and impingement of a solid tumor on the inferior vena cava (n = 1). The median operative time was 179 minutes. All solitary liver cysts were fenestrated in less than 1 hour. There were no deaths. Complications occurred in 6 cases (14.1%). Two hemorrhagic and two infectious complications were noted after management of hydatid cysts. There were no complications after resection of solid tumors. Three patients received transfusions (7%). The median length of stay was 4.7 days. Median follow-up was 30 months. There was no recurrence of solitary liver or hydatid cysts. One patient with polycystic disease had symptomatic recurrent cysts at 6 months requiring laparotomy. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic liver surgery can be accomplished safely in selected patients with small benign solid tumors located in the anterior liver segments and giant solitary cysts. The laparoscopic management of polycystic liver disease should be reserved for patients with a limited number of large, anteriorly located cysts. Hydatid disease is best treated through an open approach. (+info)
Late consequences of acute ischemic injury to a solitary kidney.
The sequelae of acute ischemic injury to a solitary kidney were assessed in rats subjected to right nephrectomy and transient occlusion of the left renal artery; control rats underwent right nephrectomy alone. Incomplete recovery from ischemic injury at 2 wk (serum creatinine levels of 1.1 +/- 0.2 versus 0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/dl, P < 0.05 for ischemia versus control) was followed by deterioration of renal function at 20 wk (serum creatinine levels of 1.7 +/- 0.4 versus 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl, P < 0.05 for ischemia versus control). Morphologic studies showed that impairment of function after ischemic injury was associated with widespread tubulointerstitial disease. Some tubule segments were atrophic and others exhibited cystic dilation, so that the tubular cell volume fraction was reduced (37 +/- 4 versus 53 +/- 2%, P < 0.05), while the tubular lumen and interstitial volume fractions were increased (31 +/- 4 versus 23 +/- 2% and 29 +/- 2 versus 20 +/- 1%, respectively, both P < 0.05). Many glomeruli retained open capillary loops but were no longer connected to normal tubule segments (63 +/- 8 versus 15 +/- 7% of glomeruli, P < 0.05). There was a strong inverse correlation between the prevalence of such glomeruli and the GFR at 20 wk after ischemia (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). Tubulointerstitial disease at that time was accompanied by proteinuria and widespread segmental glomerular tuft injury. The occurrence of similar processes in human patients could contribute to the loss of graft kidneys that suffer ischemic injury during transplantation. (+info)
Histological characteristics of sternoclavicular beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis and clues for its histogenesis.
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis (A beta 2m) has yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: We describe the distribution and extent of A beta 2m deposition and macrophagic infiltration in cartilage, capsule, and synovium of sternoclavicular joints obtained postmortem from 54 patients after 3 to 244 (median 46) months of dialysis. Twenty-four nonuremic patients served as a control group. The diagnosis of amyloidosis (A) rested on a positive Congo Red staining (typical birefringence) and that of A beta 2m on positive immunostaining of the A deposits with a monoclonal anti-beta 2m antibody. The size of A deposits was measured. RESULTS: A beta 2m was detected in 32 (59%), and non-beta 2m amyloid (Anon beta 2m) was detected in an additional 8 (15%) of the 54 dialyzed patients. A beta 2m deposits were present in the cartilage of all A beta 2m (+) patients (100%). They were localized solely in the cartilage in 27% of the cases, either as a thin patchy layer or as a continuous thicker layer (identified as stage I). A beta 2m was additionally present in the capsule and/or synovium without macrophages in 27% of the cases (identified as stage II). The correlation between the size of cartilaginous deposits and dialysis duration (P = 0.02) as well as with the prevalence (P = 0.03) and size of capsular deposits (P = 0.02) suggests that stage II is a later stage of A deposition. Clusters of macrophages were detected around capsular and synovial amyloid deposits in 46% of the cases (identified as stage III). The longer duration of dialysis in those with stage III as well as the relationship between the size of the A beta 2m deposits and the prevalence of macrophagic infiltration suggests that stage III is the last stage of A beta 2m deposition. Marginal bone erosions were observed in 9 out of 12 patients with stage III deposits. Their size was correlated with that of cartilaginous deposits (P = 0.01). Among the 24 control patients, Anon beta 2m was detected in 12 patients (cartilage 100%, capsule 8%, synovium 30%). CONCLUSIONS: The earliest stage of A beta 2m deposition occurs in the cartilage. A beta 2m subsequently extends to capsule and synovium. These two first stages do not require macrophage infiltration. Macrophages are eventually recruited around larger synovial or capsular deposits in the final stage. Marginal bone erosions develop in this late stage. (+info)
Multifocal meningioangiomatosis: a report of two cases.
We report the CT and MR findings in two patients with multifocal meningioangiomatosis, neither of whom had a family history or stigmata of neurofibromatosis. All lesions were located in the cortical and subcortical areas and had round dense calcifications with eccentric cysts. The masses were associated with surrounding edema and gliosis. (+info)
Posterior fossa epithelial cyst: case report and review of the literature.
A 49-year old woman with progressive cranial nerve signs and hemiparesis was found at MR imaging and at surgery to have a cyst at the foramen magnum. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed an epithelial cyst of endodermal origin. MR findings were of an extraaxial mass, with short T1 and T2 times. Unless immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy are used in the final diagnosis of such cysts, all posterior fossa cysts lined by a single layer of epithelium should be described simply as epithelial cysts. (+info)