Endoscopic management for traumatic occlusion of posterior urethra.
When traumatic posterior urethral transection occurs with serious pelvic fracture, the patient is usually under severe hemorrhagic shock and multiple injuries. It is of prime importance to treat shock and the associated injuries promptly. As for the urethral disruption a simple suprapubic cystostomy at the moment is preferred. Occlusion of the posterior urethra would eventually appear and can be managed endoscopically 3-6 months later. Fifteen such cases were thus managed from 1984 to 1990 with an improved endoscopic technique with a success rate of 93.3% (14/15). The advantages of this technique and the merits and demerits of various primary urethral reconstruction procedures are discussed. (+info)
Conversion of exocrine secretions from bladder to enteric drainage in recipients of whole pancreaticoduodenal transplants.
Between September 1984 and August 1991, 265 whole pancreaticoduodenal transplants were done at our institution, with bladder drainage of exocrine secretions through a duodenocystostomy. Seventeen patients subsequently underwent conversion from bladder to enteric drainage at 2 to 64 months after transplant. Eight conversion procedures were done to correct chronic intractable metabolic acidosis due to bicarbonate loss from the allograft: seven to alleviate severe dysuria, presumed secondary to the action of graft enzymes on uroepithelium; one to prevent recurrent allograft pancreatitis, presumed secondary to back pressure from the bladder; and one because of graft duodenectomy for severe cytomegalovirus duodenitis with perforation. None were done to correct technical complications from the initial transplant operation. The conversions were done by dividing the graft duodenocystostomy, then re-establishing drainage through a graft duodenal-recipient jejunal anastomosis. A simple loop of recipient jejunum was used for the duodenojejunostomy in 15 cases, and a Roux limb in two. One of those two cases had a previously created Roux limb that was available for use. The other was in the patient who underwent graft duodenectomy and subsequent mucosa-to-mucosa anastomosis of the pancreatic duct to a newly created Roux limb of jejunum. All patients experienced relief of their symptoms after operation. Two patients had surgical complications (12%), an enterotomy in one case, which was closed operatively, and an enterocutaneous fistula in the other case, which healed spontaneously with bowel rest and parenteral nutrition. The drawback to conversion is loss of urine amylase as a marker for rejection, particularly in recipients of solitary pancreas grafts (n = 5). In recipients of simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) allografts (n = 12), the kidney can still be used to monitor for rejection (two with follow-up < 1 year, 10 with follow-up > 1 year). None of our solitary pancreas recipients, however, have lost graft function (follow-up, 10 to 36 months). The only pancreas allograft loss was in an SPK recipient who also rejected the kidney 6 months after conversion. She received a second SPK transplant with enteric drainage, and is insulin independent and normoglycemic 10 months after retransplantation. Patients converted for metabolic acidosis tended to have impaired renal function (mean creatinine, 2.14 +/- 0.98 mg/dL at time of conversion) due to chronic rejection, progression of native kidney diabetic nephropathy, or cyclosporine toxicity, and possibly could not compensate for bicarbonate loss from the pancreas allograft.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) (+info)
Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in the canine: surgical management and preventative strategies.
A 4-year-old, neutered male Chihuahua was presented with inappetance, lethargy, and a tense abdomen attributed to pain. Abdominal radiographs revealed a large cystic calculus and small urethral calculi. Urethral hydropulsion followed by cystotomy were performed successfully. Dietary management was initiated as the primary means of preventing recurrence. (+info)
Stented versus nonstented extravesical ureteroneocystostomy in renal transplantation: a metaanalysis.
Stenting of the extravesical ureteroneocystostomy in renal transplantation is controversial. This study is a metaanalysis of 49 published studies over 30 years time in which the extravesical technique was used. Stented and nonstented anastomoses were compared. One-hundred six articles published between 1973 and 2002 were reviewed and 49 met criteria for inclusion. Articles were required to list original, numeric, previously unpublished data and to report or to describe the use of an extravesical ureteroneocystostomy, with or without stent. Data were analyzed within separate groups, (1) randomized, controlled trials and (2) case series. Data were included from five randomized, controlled trials and 44 case series. In the controlled trials group, there were urologic complications in 6 of 407 stented (1.5%), and 35 of 389 nonstented subjects (9.0%) (p < 0.0001, OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.57). In the case-series group, there were urologic complications in 137 of 4245 stented (3.2%) and 433 of 9077 nonstented subjects (4.8%) (p = 0.007, OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.86). Renal transplants with stented extravesical ureteroneocystostomy have a significantly lower urologic complication rate than those with nonstented anastomoses. All five randomized, controlled trials individually found stented anastomoses to have a lower complication rate and this was confirmed by metaanalysis of these trials and of case-series data. (+info)
Single-step EUS-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage using a large channel linear array echoendoscope and cystotome: results in 11 patients.
CONTEXT: EUS-guided transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst has been reported using a linear array echoendoscope; however, placement of large 10 French stent was not feasible because of the limited diameter of the working channel. Recently linear array echoendoscopes with large working channel (3.7 to 3.8 mm) and newer accessories for pancreatic cyst puncture have become available; however, clinical data on their efficacy and safety in pancreatic pseudocyst drainage is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of a one-step real time EUS-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage approach using a 3.8 mm channel linear array echoendoscope and cystotome. DESIGN: Prospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital endoscopy unit. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A total of 12 EUS-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage procedures were performed in 11 patients with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocyst using a 3.8 mm channel linear array echoendoscope and cystotome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Complete resolution of pancreatic pseudocyst on imaging. RESULTS: Successful puncture of pancreatic pseudocyst and placement of 1 or 2 stents (10 Fr) was successful in all patients who were considered eligible for EUS-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage. Overall 9 patients out of a total of 11 (82%) were managed successfully with EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage. Two recurrences were noted over a mean follow-up period of 4 months (range 3-6 months). One patient underwent successful repeat drainage and the other patient was managed with surgical cystogastrostomy because of infected cyst contents. No major complication occurred. LIMITATIONS: Uncontrolled, small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: A single-step approach using a large channel (3.8 mm) linear array echoendoscope and cystotome appears feasible. This approach appears safe and effective in managing selected patients with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts. (+info)
Experience with surgical internal drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic pseudocyst is an uncommon disorder in Nigeria compared with the Caucasian population. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the pattern and outcome of surgical management of the disease in a Nigerian population. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 10 consecutive patients with pancreatic pseudocysts who were surgically managed in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from November 1998 to October 2005. RESULTS: There were four males and six females, with a mean age of 19.2 years. The etiological factors included idiopathic acute pancreatitis in a two-year old child and blunt abdominal trauma in two patients. In seven patients, the cause could not be determined. The most common clinical features included epigastric pain, fever, intra-abdominal mass and vomiting. The duration of symptoms ranged from 15-204 days (mean=102 days). Open cystogastrostomy was done in eight patients, and two patients had cystoduodenostomy. The mean duration of hospital stay after surgery was 9.4 days (range = 7-15 days). There was no recurrence in any of the patients after about 3-9 months of follow-up with ultrasonography, and no death was recorded. CONCLUSION: Open surgical internal drainage is safe and effective with low morbidity and mortality. There is a need for provision of facilities for minimally invasive laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques. (+info)
Hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesiuria, and lack of intestinal colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in a cervical spinal cord injury patient with suprapubic cystostomy, short bowel, and nephrolithiasis.
Although urolithiasis is common in spinal cord injury patients, it is presumed that the predisposing factors for urinary stones in spinal cord injury patients are immobilization-induced hypercalciuria in the initial period after spinal injury and, in later stages, urine infection by urease-producing micro-organisms, e.g., Proteus sp., which cause struvite stones. We describe a patient who sustained C-7 complete tetraplegia in a road traffic accident in 1970, when he was 16 years old. Left ureterolithotomy was performed in 1971 followed by left nephrectomy in 1972. Probably due to adhesions, this patient developed volvulus of the intestine in 1974. As he had complete tetraplegia, he did not feel pain in the abdomen and there was a delay in the diagnosis of volvulus, which led to ischemia of a large segment of the small bowel. All but 1 ft of jejunum and 1 ft of ileum were resected leaving the large bowel intact. In 1998, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. In 2004, this patient developed calculus in the solitary right kidney. Complete stone clearance was achieved by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Stone analysis: calcium oxalate 60% and calcium phosphate 40%. Metabolic evaluation revealed hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and hypomagnesiuria. Since this patient had hyperoxaluria, the stool was tested for Oxalobacter formigenes, a specific oxalate-degrading, anerobic bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans; absence of this bacterium appears to be a risk factor for development of hyperoxaluria and, subsequently, calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. DNA from the stool was extracted using the QIAamp DNA stool Mini Kit (Qiagen, Chatsworth, CA). The genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for oxc gene (developed by Sidhu and associates). The stool sample tested negative for O. formigenes. The patient was prescribed potassium citrate mixture; he was advised to avoid oxalate-rich food, maintain recommended levels of calcium in his diet, and take live bio-yogurt. Two months later, 24-h urinary oxalate decreased from 0.618 to 0.411 mmol/day; 24-h urine citrate increased from 0.58 to 1.10 mmol/day. Six months later, an oxalate absorption test was performed. The patient swallowed a capsule, soluble in gastric juice, containing 50 mg (0.37 mmol) sodium [13C2]oxalate corresponding to 33.8 mg of [13C2]oxalic acid. The amount of labeled oxalate, excreted in urine, was measured by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay. Oxalate absorption, expressed as the percentage of the labeled dose recovered in the 24-h urine after dosing, was 8.3% (reference range: 2.3-17.5%). In addition to other conventional measures, oral administration of O. formigenes or lactic acid bacteria mixture to promote bacterial degradation of oxalate in the gut, and thus combat hyperoxaluria, may play a role in prevention of calcium oxalate kidney stones. (+info)
Synostosis between pubic bones due to neurogenic, heterotopic ossification.
Neurogenic, heterotopic ossification is characterised by the formation of new, extraosseous (ectopic) bone in soft tissue in patients with neurological disorders. A 33-year-old female, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia, and diastasis of symphysis pubis, had indwelling urethral catheter drainage and was using oxybutynin bladder instillations. She was prescribed diuretic for swelling of feet, which aggravated bypassing of catheter. Hence, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Despite anticholinergic therapy, there was chronic urine leak around the suprapubic catheter and per urethra. Therefore, the urethra was mobilised and closed. After closure of the urethra, there was no urine leak from the urethra, but urine leak persisted around the suprapubic catheter. Cystogram confirmed the presence of a Foley balloon inside the bladder; there was no urinary fistula. The Foley balloon ruptured frequently, leading to extrusion of the Foley catheter. X-ray of abdomen showed heterotopic bone formation bridging the gap across diastasis of symphysis pubis. CT of pelvis revealed heterotopic bone lying in close proximity to the balloon of the Foley catheter; the sharp edge of heterotopic bone probably acted like a saw and led to frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter. Unique features of this case are: (1) temporal relationship of heterotopic bone formation to suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak; (2) occurrence of heterotopic ossification in pubic region; (3) complications of heterotopic bone formation viz. frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter by the irregular margin of heterotopic bone and difficulty in insertion of suprapubic catheter because the heterotopic bone encroached on the suprapubic track; (4) synostosis between pubic bones as a result of heterotopic ossification.. Common aetiological factors for neurogenic, heterotopic ossification, such as forceful manipulation, trauma, or spasticity, were absent in this patient. Since heterotopic bone formation was observed in the pubic region after suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak, it is possible that risk factors related to the urinary tract might have played a role in heterotopic bone formation, which resulted in synostosis between pubic bones. (+info)