Infantile cystinosis in France: genetics, incidence, geographic distribution.
A national distribution of 66 French patients, from 49 sibships, has been studied. Segregation analysis, using the maximum likelihood method, was found to agree with the theoretical values expected in recessive autosomal inheritance. The birthplaces of these patients show an unequal geographic distribution of cystinosis, the incidence being higher in Western France. Compared with the total number of live births during the period 1959 to 1972, the minimum incidence of the condition in the province of Brittany is 1 per 25 909, and the gene frequency 0.0062. In the rest of France, the minimum incidence is 1 per 326,440 and the gene frequency 0.0018. Application of Dahlberg's formula gives a similar result. The mean inbreeding coefficient is 530 X 10(-5), a figure 23 times higher than the mean coefficient of France. An indirect test of inbreeding, the distance between parental birthplaces, was studied, first using the French administrative boundaries, second by using kilometers. This distance was constantly smaller for the parents of patients than for the parents of controls. Analysis of two erythrocyte polymorphisms (ABO and Rh) showed a large excess of group A patients when compared with overall French data. These findings are difficult to interpret on genetic grounds. The genetic reasons for the unequal geographic distribution of cystinosis in France are discussed. (+info)
Molecular characterization of CTNS deletions in nephropathic cystinosis: development of a PCR-based detection assay.
Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by accumulation of intralysosomal cystine and is caused by a defect in the transport of cystine across the lysosomal membrane. Using a positional cloning strategy, we recently cloned the causative gene, CTNS, and identified pathogenic mutations, including deletions, that span the cystinosis locus. Two types of deletions were detected-one of 9.5-16 kb, which was seen in a single family, and one of approximately 65 kb, which is the most frequent mutation found in the homozygous state in nearly one-third of cystinotic individuals. We present here characterization of the deletion breakpoints and demonstrate that, although both deletions occur in regions of repetitive sequences, they are the result of nonhomologous recombination. This type of mechanism suggests that the approximately 65-kb deletion is not a recurrent mutation, and our results confirm that it is identical in all patients. Haplotype analysis shows that this large deletion is due to a founder effect that occurred in a white individual and that probably arose in the middle of the first millenium. We also describe a rapid PCR-based assay that will accurately detect both homozygous and heterozygous deletions, and we use it to show that the approximately 65-kb deletion is present in either the homozygous or the heterozygous state in 76% of cystinotic patients of European origin. (+info)
Molecular analysis of cystinosis: probable Irish origin of the most common French Canadian mutation.
Infantile nephropathic cystinosis, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a lysosomal accumulation of cystine, presents as failure to thrive, rickets and proximal renal tubular acidosis. The cystinosis gene, CTNS, which maps to chromosome 17p13, encodes a predicted 55 kDa protein with characteristics of a lysosomal membrane protein. We have conducted extensive linkage analysis in a French Canadian cystinosis cohort identifying a founding haplotype present in approximately half (21/40) of the chromosomes studied. Subsequent mutational analysis, in addition to identifying two novel mutations, has unexpectedly revealed a mutation which has been previously found in Irish (but not French) cystinotic families on these 21 French Canadian chromosomes. Haplotype analysis of two Irish families with this mutation supports the hypothesis that Celtic chromosomes represent an extensive portion of cystinosis chromosomes in French Canada. Our analysis underlines the genetic heterogeneity of the French Canadian population, reflecting a frequently unrecognized contribution from non-Gallic sources including the Irish. (+info)
Severity of phenotype in cystinosis varies with mutations in the CTNS gene: predicted effect on the model of cystinosin.
Infantile nephropathic cystinosis is a rare, autosomal recessive disease caused by a defect in the transport of cystine across the lysosomal membrane and characterized by early onset of renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Late-onset cystinosis, a rarer form of the disorder, is characterized by onset of symptoms between 12 and 15 years of age. We previously characterized the cystinosis gene, CTNS, and identified pathogenic mutations in patients with infantile nephropathic cystinosis, including a common, approximately 65 kb deletion which encompasses exons 1-10. Structure predictions suggested that the gene product, cystinosin, is a novel integral lysosomal membrane protein. We now examine the predicted effect of mutations on this model of cystinosin. In this study, we screened patients with infantile nephropathic cystinosis, those with late-onset cystinosis and patients whose phenotype does not fit the classical definitions. We found 23 different mutations in CTNS; 14 are novel mutations. Out of 25 patients with infantile nephropathic cystinosis, 12 have two severely truncating mutations, which is consistent with a loss of functional protein, and 13 have missense or in-frame deletions, which would result in disruption of transmembrane domains and loss of protein function. Mutations found in two late-onset patients affect functionally unimportant regions of cystinosin, which accounts for their milder phenotype. For three patients, the age of onset of cystinosis was <7 years but the course of the disease was milder than the infantile nephropathic form. This suggests that the missense mutations found in these individuals allow production of functional protein and may also indicate regions of cystinosin which are not functionally important. (+info)
New method for determining cystine in leukocytes and fibroblasts.
BACKGROUND: Cystinosis is a rare inborn error of cystine transport, leading to accumulation of cystine in the lysosomes. To diagnose cystinosis and monitor treatment with cysteamine, adequate measurements of cystine concentrations in leukocytes and cultured fibroblasts are required. METHODS: Cells were sonicated in the presence of excess N-ethylmaleimide to prevent oxidation of cysteine to cystine and disulfide exchange reactions of cystine with available sulfhydryl moieties. Cystine was measured as cysteine after reduction with sodium borohydride and derivatization with monobromobimane, followed by separation with automated HPLC and fluorescence detection. RESULTS: The assay was linear to 200 micromol/L cysteine. Within-run and day-to-day (total) imprecision (CV) was <5%, and the detection limit was 0.3 micromol/L. Added cysteine, up to 200 micromol/L, was completely removed, and recovery of added cystine was 69-86%. Cystine was stable for at least 2 months in leukocytes frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 degrees C CONCLUSIONS: Oxidation of cysteine to cystine and disulfide exchange reactions of cystine with sulfhydryl moieties are prevented by N-ethylmaleimide. The detection limit for the determination of cystine is adequate to measure cystine in leukocytes and cultured fibroblasts for diagnosis of cystinosis and monitoring treatment with cysteamine. (+info)
The genomic region encompassing the nephropathic cystinosis gene (CTNS): complete sequencing of a 200-kb segment and discovery of a novel gene within the common cystinosis-causing deletion.
Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the defective transport of cystine out of lysosomes. Recently, the causative gene (CTNS) was identified and presumed to encode an integral membrane protein called cystinosin. Many of the disease-associated mutations in CTNS are deletions, including one >55 kb in size that represents the most common cystinosis allele encountered to date. In an effort to determine the precise genomic organization of CTNS and to gain sequence-based insight about the DNA within and flanking cystinosis-associated deletions, we mapped and sequenced the region of human chromosome 17p13 encompassing CTNS. Specifically, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map spanning CTNS was constructed by sequence-tagged site (STS)-content mapping. The resulting BAC contig provided the relative order of 43 STSs. Two overlapping BACs, which together contain all of the CTNS exons as well as extensive amounts of flanking DNA, were selected and subjected to shotgun sequencing. A total of 200,237 bp of contiguous, high-accuracy sequence was generated. Analysis of the resulting data revealed a number of interesting features about this genomic region, including the long-range organization of CTNS, insight about the breakpoints and intervening DNA associated with the common cystinosis-causing deletion, and structural information about five genes neighboring CTNS (human ortholog of rat vanilloid receptor subtype 1 gene, CARKL, TIP-1, P2X5, and HUMINAE). In particular, sequence analysis detected the presence of a novel gene (CARKL) residing within the most common cystinosis-causing deletion. This gene encodes a previously unknown protein that is predicted to function as a carbohydrate kinase. Interestingly, both CTNS and CARKL are absent in nearly half of all cystinosis patients (i.e., those homozygous for the common deletion). [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. AF168787 and AF163573.] (+info)
The targeting of cystinosin to the lysosomal membrane requires a tyrosine-based signal and a novel sorting motif.
Cystinosis is a lysosomal transport disorder characterized by an accumulation of intra-lysosomal cystine. Biochemical studies showed that the lysosomal cystine transporter was distinct from the plasma membrane cystine transporters and that it exclusively transported cystine. The gene underlying cystinosis, CTNS, encodes a predicted seven-transmembrane domain protein called cystinosin, which is highly glycosylated at the N-terminal end and carries a GY-XX-Phi (where Phi is a hydrophobic residue) lysosomal-targeting motif in its carboxyl tail. We constructed cystinosin-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins to determine the subcellular localization of cystinosin in transfected cell lines and showed that cystinosin-green fluorescent protein colocalizes with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) to lysosomes. Deletion of the GY-XX-Phi motif resulted in a partial redirection to the plasma membrane as well as sorting to lysosomes, demonstrating that this motif is only partially responsible for the lysosomal targeting of cystinosin and suggesting the existence of a second sorting signal. A complete relocalization of cystinosin to the plasma membrane was obtained after deletion of half of the third cytoplasmic loop (amino acids 280-288) coupled with the deletion of the GY-DQ-L motif, demonstrating the presence of the second signal within this loop. Using site-directed mutagenesis studies we identified a novel conformational lysosomal-sorting motif, the core of which was delineated to YFPQA (amino acids 281-285). (+info)
The promoter of a lysosomal membrane transporter gene, CTNS, binds Sp-1, shares sequences with the promoter of an adjacent gene, CARKL, and causes cystinosis if mutated in a critical region.
Although >55 CTNS mutations occur in patients with the lysosomal storage disorder cystinosis, no regulatory mutations have been reported, because the promoter has not been defined. Using CAT reporter constructs of sequences 5' to the CTNS coding sequence, we identified the CTNS promoter as the region encompassing nucleotides -316 to +1 with respect to the transcription start site. This region contains an Sp-1 regulatory element (GGCGGCG) at positions -299 to -293, which binds authentic Sp-1, as shown by electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays. Three patients exhibited mutations in the CTNS promoter. One patient with nephropathic cystinosis carried a -295 G-->C substitution disrupting the Sp-1 motif, whereas two patients with ocular cystinosis displayed a -303 G-->T substitution in one case and a -303 T insertion in the other case. Each mutation drastically reduced CAT activity when inserted into a reporter construct. Moreover, each failed either to cause a mobility shift when exposed to nuclear extract or to compete with the normal oligonucleotide's mobility shift. The CTNS promoter region shares 41 nucleotides with the promoter region of an adjacent gene of unknown function, CARKL, whose start site is 501 bp from the CTNS start site. However, the patients' CTNS promoter mutations have no effect on CARKL promoter activity. These findings suggest that the CTNS promoter region should be examined in patients with cystinosis who have fewer than two coding-sequence mutations. (+info)