(1/5500) The Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretory product pyocyanin inactivates alpha1 protease inhibitor: implications for the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease.
Alpha1 Protease inhibitor (alpha1PI) modulates serine protease activity in the lung. Reactive oxygen species inactivate alpha1PI, and this process has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of forms of lung injury. An imbalance of protease-antiprotease activity is also detected in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis-associated lung disease who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa secretes pyocyanin, which, through its ability to redox cycle, induces cells to generate reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that redox cycling of pyocyanin could lead to inactivation of alpha1PI. When alpha1PI was exposed to NADH and pyocyanin, a combination that results in superoxide production, alpha1PI lost its ability to form an inhibitory complex with both porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and trypsin. Similarly, addition of pyocyanin to cultures of human airway epithelial cells to which alpha1PI was also added resulted in a loss of the ability of alpha1PI to form a complex with PPE or trypsin. Neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, nor dimethylthiourea nor depletion of the media of O2 to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species blocked pyocyanin-mediated inactivation of alpha1PI. These data raise the possibility that a direct interaction between reduced pyocyanin and alpha1PI is involved in the process. Consistent with this possibility, pretreatment of alpha1PI with the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol also inhibited binding of trypsin to alpha1PI. These data suggest that pyocyanin could contribute to lung injury in the P. aeruginosa-infected airway of cystic fibrosis patients by decreasing the ability of alpha1PI to control the local activity of serine proteases. (+info)
(2/5500) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Burkholderia cepacia is more active than LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in stimulating tumor necrosis factor alpha from human monocytes.
Whole cells and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Escherichia coli were compared in their ability to stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from the human monocyte cell line MonoMac-6. B. cepacia LPS, on a weight-for-weight basis, was found to have TNF-alpha-inducing activity similar to that of LPS from E. coli, which was approximately four- and eightfold greater than the activity of LPSs from P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia, respectively. The LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production from monocytes was found to be CD14 dependent. These results suggest that B. cepacia LPS might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease in cystic fibrosis, and in some patients it might be responsible, at least in part, for the sepsis-like cepacia syndrome. (+info)
(3/5500) The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection.
Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa. (+info)
(4/5500) Cystic fibrosis-associated mutations at arginine 347 alter the pore architecture of CFTR. Evidence for disruption of a salt bridge.
Arginine 347 in the sixth transmembrane domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a site of four cystic fibrosis-associated mutations. To better understand the function of Arg-347 and to learn how mutations at this site disrupt channel activity, we mutated Arg-347 to Asp, Cys, Glu, His, Leu, or Lys and examined single-channel function. Every Arg-347 mutation examined, except R347K, had a destabilizing effect on the pore, causing the channel to flutter between two conductance states. Chloride flow through the larger conductance state was similar to that of wild-type CFTR, suggesting that the residue at position 347 does not interact directly with permeating anions. We hypothesized that Arg-347 stabilizes the channel through an electrostatic interaction with an anionic residue in another transmembrane domain. To test this, we mutated anionic residues (Asp-924, Asp-993, and Glu-1104) to Arg in the context of either R347E or R347D mutations. Interestingly, the D924R mutation complemented R347D, yielding a channel that behaved like wild-type CFTR. These data suggest that Arg-347 plays an important structural role in CFTR, at least in part by forming a salt bridge with Asp-924; cystic fibrosis-associated mutations disrupt this interaction. (+info)
(5/5500) beta3-adrenoceptor control the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through a cAMP/protein kinase A-independent pathway.
In human cardiac myocytes, we have previously identified a functional beta3-adrenoceptor in which stimulation reduces action potential duration. Surprisingly, in cardiac biopsies obtained from cystic fibrosis patients, beta3-adrenoceptor agonists produced no effects on action potential duration. This result suggests the involvement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride current in the electrophysiological effects of beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation in non-cystic fibrosis tissues. We therefore investigated the control of CFTR activity by human beta3-adrenoceptors in a recombinant system: A549 human cells were intranuclearly injected with plasmids encoding CFTR and beta3-adrenoceptors. CFTR activity was functionally assayed using the 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescent probe and the patch-clamp technique. Injection of CFTR-cDNA alone led to the expression of a functional CFTR protein activated by cAMP or cGMP. Co-expression of CFTR (but not of mutated DeltaF508-CFTR) with high levels of beta3-adrenoceptor produced an increased halide permeability under base-line conditions that was not further sensitive to cAMP or beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation. Patch-clamp experiments confirmed that CFTR channels were permanently activated in cells co-expressing CFTR and a high level of beta3-adrenoceptor. Permanent CFTR activation was not associated with elevated intracellular cAMP or cGMP levels. When the expression level of beta3-adrenoceptor was lowered, CFTR was not activated under base-line conditions but became sensitive to beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation (isoproterenol plus nadolol, SR 58611, or CGP 12177). This later effect was not prevented by protein kinase A inhibitors. Our results provide molecular evidence that CFTR but not mutated DeltaF508-CFTR is regulated by beta3-adrenoceptors expression through a protein kinase A-independent pathway. (+info)
(6/5500) Comparison of flagellin genes from clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, was isolated from environmental samples and compared to clinically derived strains. While P. aeruginosa was isolated readily from an experimental mushroom-growing unit, it was found only rarely in other environmental samples. A flagellin gene PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates revealed that environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa strains are not readily distinguishable. The variation in the central regions of the flagellin genes of seven of the isolates was investigated further. The strains used included two strains with type a genes (998 bp), four strains with type b genes (1,258 bp), and one strain, K979, with a novel flagellin gene (2,199 bp). The route by which flagellin gene variation has occurred in P. aeruginosa is discussed. (+info)
(7/5500) Molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene reveals a high frequency of the intron 8 splice variant 5T in Egyptian males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens.
It has previously been shown that defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are largely responsible for the condition of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), without associated renal abnormalities, in Caucasian populations. To assess the involvement of the CFTR in CBAVD in a population with presumed low cystic fibrosis (CF) frequency, we have analysed 20 CBAVD males from Egypt for the presence of 12 common Caucasian CFTR mutations and the intron 8 5T splice variant, IVS-5T, known to be a major cause of CBAVD in Caucasian patients. In 16 of the males without associated renal abnormalities only one deltaF508 carrier was identified, but an exceptionally high frequency of the IVS-5T variant was found (14 of 32 alleles or 43.7%), confirming that this variant is involved in many cases of CBAVD, even in populations where CF is rare. CFTR mutations or the IVS-5T variant were found neither in the remaining four patients with associated renal abnormalities nor in the spouses of the 20 CBAVD patients. However, one patient was homozygous for a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid position 541 (L541P) of the CFTR. It is as yet not clear whether this change is involved in CBAVD in this male. (+info)
(8/5500) Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium.
1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response. (+info)