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(1/109) Overexpression of H-Ryk in mouse fibroblasts confers transforming ability in vitro and in vivo: correlation with up-regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Abnormalities in the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been demonstrated to be important in the pathogenesis of cancer. H-Ryk, a new member of the RTK family, is an unusual RTK in that it is catalytically inactive because of amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the catalytic domain. We show by immunohistochemistry that it is expressed in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels of normal tissues. Evaluation of a panel of 33 primary ovarian tumors (2 benign, 8 borderline, and 23 malignant) was performed. H-Ryk was overexpressed in borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. In serous and clear cell subtypes, there was increased expression in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of H-Ryk in the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 induces anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. This implies that overexpression of the receptor can be transforming and may therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(2/109) Three dimensional ultrasound and power doppler in assessment of uterine and ovarian angiogenesis: a prospective study.

AIM: To determine whether three-dimensional power Doppler can improve the recognition of pelvic tumor morphology and angiogenesis. METHODS: Using this technique we analyzed 180 adnexal masses and 110 uterine lesions. Tumor volume, morphology, and vascularity were evaluated in each patient. Irregular and randomly dispersed vessels with complex branching depicted by comprehensive three dimensional display were suggestive of pelvic malignancy, while linear-like vascular morphology, single vessel arrangement and regular branching were typical for benign structures. RESULTS: Addition of qualitative analysis of vascular architecture of adnexal tumor to morphological parameters reached 96.15% sensitivity and 98.73% specificity. When endometrial lesions were prospectively analyzed, sensitivity and specificity were 91.67% and 98.49%, respectively. Because the lowest positive predictive value of 16.67% was obtained for myometrial lesions, this method should not be advised for their eva luation. CONCLUSION: Good results achieved by three dimensional ultrasound can be explained by improved recognition of the pelvic lesion anatomy, characterization of the surface features, detection of the tumor infiltration, and precise depiction of the size and volume. Three dimensional power Doppler imaging can detect structural abnormalities of the malignant tumor vessels, such as arteriovenous shunts, microaneurysms, tumoral lakes, disproportional calibration, coiling, and dichotomous branching. Therefore it enhances and facilitates the morphologic and functional evaluation of both benign and malignant pelvic tumors.  (+info)

(3/109) Clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography.

BACKGROUND: Cystic tumor of the pancreas has been investigated by a variety of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is being widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for investigation of the biliary tree and pancreatic duct system. The purpose of this study was to compare MRCP images with those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and computed tomography (CT) in order to clarify the diagnostic efficacy of MRCP for cystic tumor of the pancreas. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 15 patients with cystic tumor of the pancreas that had been surgically resected and histopathologically confirmed. There were five cases of intraductal papillary adenocarcinoma, five of intraductal papillary adenoma, two of serous cyst adenoma, two of retention cyst associated with invasive ductal adenocarcinoma and one of solid cystic tumor. RESULTS: In all cases MRCP correctly identified the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and showed the entire cystic tumor and the communication between the tumor and the MPD. On the other hand, the detection rate by ERCP of the cystic tumor and the communication between the cystic tumor and the MPD was only 60%. Although the detection rates by CT for the septum and solid components inside the cystic tumor were 100 and 90.0%, respectively, those of MRCP for each were 58.3 and 20.0%. CONCLUSION: MRCP is capable of providing diagnostic information superior to ERCP for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas. Although MRCP may provide complementary information about the whole lesion of interest, the characteristic internal features of cystic tumor of the pancrease should be carefully diagnosed in combination with CT.  (+info)

(4/109) Cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas of the pancreas: a multiinstitutional retrospective study of 398 cases. French Surgical Association.

OBJECTIVE: To review the features of patients with benign and malignant cystadenomas of the pancreas, focusing on preoperative diagnostic accuracy and long-term outcome, especially for nonoperated serous cystadenomas and resected cystadenocarcinomas. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Serous cystadenomas (SCAs) are benign tumors. Mucinous cystic neoplasms should be resected because of the risk of malignant progression. A correct preoperative diagnosis of tumor type is based on morphologic criteria. Despite the high quality of recent imaging procedures, the diagnosis frequently remains uncertain. Invasive investigations such as endosonography and diagnostic aspiration of cystic fluid may be helpful, but their assessment is limited to small series. The management of typical SCA may require resection or observation. Survival after pancreatic resection seems better for cystadenocarcinomas (MCACs) than for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-eight cases of cystadenomas of the pancreas were collected between 1984 and 1996 in 73 institutions of the French Surgical Association. Clinical presentation, radiologic evaluation, and surgical procedures were analyzed for 144 operated SCAs, 150 mucinous cystadenomas (MCAs), and 78 MCACs. The outcome of 372 operated patients and 26 nonoperated patients with SCA was analyzed. RESULTS: Cystadenomas represented 76% of all primary pancreatic cystic tumors (398/522). An asymptomatic tumor was discovered in 32% of patients with SCA, 26% of those with MCA, and 13% of those with MCAC. The tumor was located in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas in 38% of those with SCA, 27% of those with MCA, and 49% of those with MCAC. A communication between the cyst and pancreatic duct was discovered in 0.6% of those with SCA, 6% of those with MCA, and 10% of those with MCAC. The main investigations were ultrasonography and computed tomography (94% for SCA, MCA, and MCAC), endosonography (34%, 28%, and 22% for SCA, MCA, and MCAC respectively), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (16%, 14%, 22%), and cyst fluid analysis (22%, 31%, 35%). An accurate preoperative diagnosis of tumor type was proposed for 20% of those with SCA (144 cases), 30% of those with MCA, and 29% of those with MCAC. An atypical unilocular macrocyst was observed in 10% of SCA cases. The most common misdiagnosis for mucinous cystic tumors was pseudocyst (9% of MCAs, 15% of MCACs). Intraoperative frozen sections (126 cases) allowed a diagnosis according to definitive histologic examination in 50% of those with SCA and MCA and 62% of those with MCAC. For management, 93% of patients underwent surgery. Nonoperated patients (7%) had exclusively typical SCA. A complete cyst excision was performed in 94% of benign cystadenomas, with an operative mortality rate of 2% for SCA and 1.4% for MCA. Resection was possible in 74% of cases of MCAC. Mean follow-up of 26 patients with nonresected SCAs was 38 months, and no patients required surgery. For resected MCACs, the actuarial 5-year survival rate was 63%. CONCLUSIONS: Spiral computed tomography is the examination of choice for a correct prediction of tumor type. Endosonography may be useful to detect the morphologic criteria of small tumors. Diagnostic aspiration of the cyst allows differentiation of the macrocystic form of SCA (10% of cases) and the unilocular type of mucinous cystic neoplasm from a pseudocyst. Surgical resection should be performed for symptomatic SCAs, all mucinous cystic neoplasms, and cystic tumors that are not clearly defined. Conservative management is wholly justified for a well-documented SCA with no symptoms. An extensive resection is warranted for MCAC because the 5-year survival rate may exceed 60%.  (+info)

(5/109) Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. METHODS: A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. CONCLUSION: Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of neoangiogenesis. The clinical relevance remains to be determined.  (+info)

(6/109) Cystic struma ovarii: a rare presentation of an infrequent tumor.

CONTEXT: Struma ovarii, a rare neoplasm, is a monophyletic teratoma composed of thyroid tissue. It is generally considered to account for less than 5% of mature teratomas. CASE REPORT: A diagnosis of struma ovarii may be the source of many diagnostic problems. It may be cystic and microscopic examination may only reveal a few typical thyroid follicles, resulting in confusion with other cystic ovarian tumors. Extensive sampling should be undertaken and immunohistochemistry may be decisive in establishing the thyroid nature of the epithelial lining. The authors report two cases of cystic struma ovarii, and discuss diagnostic criteria and the limitations of frozen biopsies in these tumors.  (+info)

(7/109) Expression of a homeobox gene (SIX5) in borderline ovarian tumours.

AIMS: To assess the expression of SIX5 (a homeobox gene) mRNA in surface coelomic epithelium, endocervical epithelium, Fallopian tube epithelium, and benign, borderline, and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. METHODS: 10 normal premenopausal ovaries, 10 normal Fallopian tubes, 10 normal cervices, 10 normal postmenopausal ovaries, 10 benign epithelial ovarian tumours, 10 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours, and 40 borderline epithelial ovarian tumours were studied retrospectively. The tissues had been fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. The tumours had previously been typed into mucinous, serous, or mixed tumours and assigned to the borderline category according to the FIGO/WHO criteria. Expression was assessed by in situ binding of SIX5 specific sense and antisense riboprobes. Hybridization of the riboprobes was detected using a standard immunohistochemical technique and the results correlated with expression in the normal epithelium of the endocervix, Fallopian tube, surface coelomic epithelium, and ovarian tumours. RESULTS: Expression of SIX5 mRNA was demonstrated in normal Fallopian tube epithelium and normal endocervical epithelium. SIX5 mRNA was not detected in normal ovarian epithelial tissue at any of the times studied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of SIX5 was not shown in benign epithelial ovarian tumours or in any of the malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. In 31 of 37 borderline epithelial ovarian tumours (84%), SIX5 expression was found in the epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: SIX5 expression is present in the normal epithelium throughout most of the female reproductive tract, suggesting it may have a role in maintaining epithelial differentiation in these tissues. SIX5 expression appears to be restricted to borderline epithelial ovarian tumours and may be a marker of epithelial differentiation in these tumours; thus borderline ovarian tumours may not be part of a continuum of disease between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Further investigation of expression of SIX5 may clarify the molecular processes that promote differentiation of the ovarian surface epithelium.  (+info)

(8/109) Pancreatic duct cell carcinomas express high levels of high mobility group I(Y) proteins.

The high mobility group I (HMGI) family of proteins in mammals belongs to a group of nonhistone nuclear proteins known as architectural transcriptional factors. They function in vivo as both structural components of chromatin and auxiliary gene transcription factors. In an earlier study (N. Abe et al, Cancer Res., 59: 1169-1174, 1999), we demonstrated that the expression level of the HMGI(Y) gene/proteins was significantly increased in colorectal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenoma with severe cellular atypia. In the current study, we analyzed HMGI(Y) expression in several human pancreatic lesions to investigate (a) whether HMGI(Y) overexpression is also observed in pancreatic carcinoma, and (b) the role of HMGI(Y) in the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. To this end, HMGI(Y) expression was determined at the protein level by immunohistochemistry using a HMGI(Y)-specific antibody in 6 surgically resected specimens of nonneoplastic tissue (4 specimens of normal pancreatic tissue and 2 specimens of chronic pancreatitis tissue), 8 pancreatic cystic neoplasms (5 intraductal papillary mucinous adenomas, 1 serous cystadenoma, and 2 solid pseudopapillary tumors), and 15 duct cell carcinomas of the pancreas. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense nuclear staining in the pancreatic carcinoma cells, whereas only very faint nuclear staining was seen in the nonneoplastic cells. There was a strong correlation between HMGI(Y) protein overexpression and a diagnosis of carcinoma (P = 0.000018). Thus, an increased expression level of the HMGI(Y) proteins was clearly associated with the malignant phenotype in pancreatic tissue. In addition, a low level of protein expression was also apparent in two of the cystic neoplasms that exhibited cellular atypia, but not in those that did not exhibit cellular atypia. Based on these findings, we propose that the HMGI(Y) proteins could be closely associated with tumorigenesis in the pancreas and that HMGI(Y) could serve as a potential diagnostic molecular marker for distinguishing pancreatic malignancies unambiguously from normal tissue or benign lesions.  (+info)