(1/109) Overexpression of H-Ryk in mouse fibroblasts confers transforming ability in vitro and in vivo: correlation with up-regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Abnormalities in the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been demonstrated to be important in the pathogenesis of cancer. H-Ryk, a new member of the RTK family, is an unusual RTK in that it is catalytically inactive because of amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the catalytic domain. We show by immunohistochemistry that it is expressed in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels of normal tissues. Evaluation of a panel of 33 primary ovarian tumors (2 benign, 8 borderline, and 23 malignant) was performed. H-Ryk was overexpressed in borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. In serous and clear cell subtypes, there was increased expression in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of H-Ryk in the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 induces anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. This implies that overexpression of the receptor can be transforming and may therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(2/109) Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in combination with hemangiosarcoma in the ovary.

The ovary is the sixth most frequent site of cancer in women in Denmark with an incidence of approximately 600 cases per year. Carcinomas predominate whereas sarcomas are rare. We describe a case of the combination mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and hemangiosarcoma in a 37-year old woman, who had a right-sited oophorectomy because of a cyst. Clinically there was no suspicion of malignancy. The macro- and microscopic findings are described as well as the immunohistochemical stainings performed to confirm the diagnosis. The case shows the importance of careful sampling at the macroscopic examination, especially from areas with a striking appearance.  (+info)

(3/109) Clinical and pathologic correlation of 84 mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: can one reliably differentiate benign from malignant (or premalignant) neoplasms?

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the long-term behavior of cystic mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas could be predicted using a novel, precisely defined classification of benign mucinous cystadenomas, noninvasive proliferative cystic mucinous neoplasms, and invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. The primary interest was to obtain long-term follow-up after complete resection to determine the recurrence rates based on this objective classification. BACKGROUND: Current understanding is that all cystic mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas are potentially malignant and that mucinous cystadenomas, when completely removed, are biologically benign. Cystadenocarcinomas are thought to be less aggressively malignant than ordinary ductal adenocarcinoma, but reported recurrence rates vary widely and are unpredictable. METHODS: All patients who underwent "curative" resection for cystic mucinous neoplasms at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 1940 to 1997 were identified. All available pathology slides, gross specimens, and clinical records were reviewed, eliminating patients with inadequate documentation. Neoplasms were reclassified as mucinous cystadenomas, noninvasive proliferative mucinous cystic neoplasms, or invasive cystadenocarcinomas based on specific histologic criteria. RESULTS: Of 84 patients (70 women, 14 men) with cystic mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas, 54 were classified as cystadenomas, 23 as noninvasive proliferative cystic mucinous neoplasms, and only 7 as cystadenocarcinomas. Recurrent disease developed in none of the 77 patients without invasion, but 5 of the 6 patients surviving resection for cystadenocarcinomas died of recurrent cystadenocarcinoma within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: When the neoplasm is completely resected and subjected to adequate histopathologic examination based on these objective criteria, absence of tissue invasion predicts a curative operation and detailed follow-up may be unnecessary. In contrast, a histologic diagnosis of invasive cystadenocarcinoma portends a dismal prognosis, similar to that of typical ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.  (+info)

(4/109) Expression of a homeobox gene (SIX5) in borderline ovarian tumours.

AIMS: To assess the expression of SIX5 (a homeobox gene) mRNA in surface coelomic epithelium, endocervical epithelium, Fallopian tube epithelium, and benign, borderline, and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. METHODS: 10 normal premenopausal ovaries, 10 normal Fallopian tubes, 10 normal cervices, 10 normal postmenopausal ovaries, 10 benign epithelial ovarian tumours, 10 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours, and 40 borderline epithelial ovarian tumours were studied retrospectively. The tissues had been fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. The tumours had previously been typed into mucinous, serous, or mixed tumours and assigned to the borderline category according to the FIGO/WHO criteria. Expression was assessed by in situ binding of SIX5 specific sense and antisense riboprobes. Hybridization of the riboprobes was detected using a standard immunohistochemical technique and the results correlated with expression in the normal epithelium of the endocervix, Fallopian tube, surface coelomic epithelium, and ovarian tumours. RESULTS: Expression of SIX5 mRNA was demonstrated in normal Fallopian tube epithelium and normal endocervical epithelium. SIX5 mRNA was not detected in normal ovarian epithelial tissue at any of the times studied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of SIX5 was not shown in benign epithelial ovarian tumours or in any of the malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. In 31 of 37 borderline epithelial ovarian tumours (84%), SIX5 expression was found in the epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: SIX5 expression is present in the normal epithelium throughout most of the female reproductive tract, suggesting it may have a role in maintaining epithelial differentiation in these tissues. SIX5 expression appears to be restricted to borderline epithelial ovarian tumours and may be a marker of epithelial differentiation in these tumours; thus borderline ovarian tumours may not be part of a continuum of disease between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Further investigation of expression of SIX5 may clarify the molecular processes that promote differentiation of the ovarian surface epithelium.  (+info)

(5/109) The coexistence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms of the appendix and appendiceal diverticula: a possible role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei.

We examined 38 appendectomies with diagnoses of mucocele, diverticulum, or adenoma to study the coincidence of appendiceal diverticula and appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms and to examine the possible role of diverticula in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Invasive adenocarcinomas and retention cysts were excluded (six cases). Cases were classified as adenomas or mucinous tumors of unknown malignant potential, with or without diverticula. Medical records were reviewed for multiple parameters, including presenting symptoms, presence of pseudomyxoma peritonei, and presence of associated malignancies. Binomial statistics were used to calculate the probability that the observed prevalence of low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together was significantly different from the expected prevalence of diverticula or low-grade mucinous neoplasms alone, using historical controls from the literature. Twenty-five percent of the total cases (8 of 32) contained both a low-grade mucinous neoplasm (7 cystadenomas and 1 mucinous tumor of unknown malignant potential) and a diverticulum. Thus, 8 of 19 low-grade mucinous neoplasms (42%) were associated with diverticula. Of the appendices with both low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula, three contained dissecting acellular mucin within the appendiceal wall, four showed diverticular perforation, and one had pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with the ruptured diverticulum. A significant percentage (P < .001) of cases contained low-grade mucinous neoplasms and diverticula together. The case of coexistent low-grade mucinous neoplasm, diverticulum, and pseudomyxoma peritonei suggests that diverticula could play a role in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. This could occur either by involvement of preexisting diverticula by the neoplasm or by distention of the appendiceal lumen by mucin, leading to increased intraluminal pressure and subsequent diverticulum formation at a weak area in the wall. Either mechanism might allow low-grade mucinous neoplasms to penetrate the appendiceal wall more easily.  (+info)

(6/109) Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mucinous cystadenoma.

A 57 year old woman presented complaining of increasing abdominal swelling of six months duration. A mixed solid cystic left ovarian tumour measuring 24 cm in diameter was excised. Histology showed numerous cysts lined by benign mucinous epithelium blending imperceptibly into borderline clear cell and mucinous areas that in turn merged with an invasive clear cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of clear cell carcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma. The implications for the previously postulated pathogenesis of these tumours are discussed.  (+info)

(7/109) Mucinous cystadenoma coexisting with stromal tumor with minor sex-cord elements of the ovary: a case report.

Mucinous neoplasms occur rarely in association with cystic teratoma, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, granulosa cell tumor or carcinoid tumor. Several cases of an ovarian stromal tumor with minor sex-cord elements have been reported in the literatures. However, there has been no report about an ovarian mucinous neoplasm coexisting with a stromal tumor with sex-cord elements yet. We report a case of an ovarian neoplasm composed of both mucinous cystadenoma and stromal tumor with minor sex-cord elements in a 58-yr-old female. The ovary including the mass measured 5 cm in size. On section, it revealed an unilocular cyst (4.5 cm in diameter) filled with mucinous fluid. There was a round, yellow, solid nodule, 1.5 cm in diameter within the wall. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by a single layer of endocervical mucinous epithelium and the nodule was composed of spindle cells showing an intersecting and whorled arrangement. There were cell nests showing polygonal shape with abundant cytoplasm among the spindle cells. They showed immunoreactivity for inhibin and did not have any connection with the adjacent mucinous epithelium. Therefore, we interpret the mucinous cystadenoma as having arisen de novo.  (+info)

(8/109) Expression of laminin-5-gamma-2 chain in intraductal papillary-mucinous and invasive ductal tumors of the pancreas.

The laminin-5-gamma-2 chain is expressed in various invasive carcinoma cells. To clarify the relationship between laminin-5 expression and the development of intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors (IPMTs), we performed an immunohistochemical study of 26 IPMTs and 30 invasive ductal adenocarcinomas. Cases were classified into five groups: intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (Group A; n = 8), adenocarcinoma without invasion (Group B; n = 3), adenocarcinoma with minimal invasion (Group C; n = 5), adenocarcinoma with macroscopically evident invasion (Group D; n = 10), and invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (conventional type; Group E; n = 30). In the invasive components of Groups D and E, laminin-5 was expressed in 80% and 100% of cases, respectively. In the intraductal components of IPMTs, expression of laminin-5 was not seen in Groups A and B, whereas they were seen in one case in Group C (20%) and in seven in Group D (70%). Most of the staining patterns of the intraductal components were focal and scattered. Laminin-5-gamma-2 expression in the intraductal components of IPMTs tends to increase as tumors develop and may be a indicator of the potential invasiveness of the tumor cells.  (+info)