(1/3253) Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4.
Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD. (+info)
(2/3253) Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts.
The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by =50% compared to young cells. We also provide new evidence that p21 may play a role in inactivation of the DNA replication factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen during early senescence. Finally, because p16 accumulates in parallel with the increases in senescence-associated beta-Gal activity and cell volume that characterize the senescent phenotype, we suggest that p16 upregulation may be part of a differentiation program that is turned on in senescent cells. Since p21 decreases after senescence is achieved, this upregulation of p16 may be essential for maintenance of the senescent-cell-cycle arrest. (+info)
(3/3253) Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice.
The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens. (+info)
(4/3253) Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell.
Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene. (+info)
(5/3253) Alternatively spliced EDA segment regulates fibronectin-dependent cell cycle progression and mitogenic signal transduction.
Fibronectin (FN) is comprised of multiple isoforms arising from alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. One of the alternatively spliced segments, EDA, is expressed prominently in embryonic development, malignant transformation, and wound healing. We showed previously that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in promoting cell spreading and cell migration because of its enhanced binding affinity to integrin alpha5beta1 (Manabe, R., Oh-e, N., Maeda, T., Fukuda, T., and Sekiguchi, K. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 295-307). In this study, we compared the cell cycle progression and its associated signal transduction events induced by FN isoforms with or without the EDA segment to examine whether the EDA segment modulates the cell proliferative potential of FN. We found that EDA+ FN was more potent than EDA- FN in inducing G1-S phase transition. Inclusion of the EDA segment potentiated the ability of FN to induce expression of cyclin D1, hyperphosphorylation of pRb, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). EDA+ FN was also more potent than EDA- FN in promoting FN-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(Cas), but not focal adhesion kinase, which occurred in parallel with the activation of ERK2, suggesting that p130(Cas) may be involved in activation of ERK2. These results indicated that alternative splicing at the EDA region is a novel mechanism that promotes FN-induced cell cycle progression through up-regulation of integrin-mediated mitogenic signal transduction. (+info)
(6/3253) Survey of gene amplifications during prostate cancer progression by high-throughout fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays.
Prostate cancer development and progression is driven by the accumulation of genetic changes, the nature of which remains incompletely understood To facilitate high-throughput analysis of molecular events taking place in primary, recurrent, and metastat prostate cancer, we constructed a tissue microarray containing small 0.6-mm cylindrical samples acquired from 371 formalin-fixed blocks, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 32) and primary tumors (n = 223), as well as both locally recurrent tumors (n = 54) and metastases (n = 62) from patients with hormone-refractory disease. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to the analysis of consecutive tissue microarray sections with probes for five different genes. High-level (> or =3X) amplifications were very rare (<2%) in primary prostate cancers However, in metastases from patients with hormone-refractory disease, amplification of the androgen receptor gene was seen in 22%, MYC in 11%, and Cyclin-D1 in 5% of the cases. In specimens from locally recurrent tumors, the corresponding percentages were 23, 4, and 8%. ERBB2 and NMYC amplifications were never detected at any stage of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, FISH to tissue microarray sections enables high-throughput analysis of genetic alterations contributing to cancer development and progression. Our results implicate a role for amplification of androgen receptor in hormonal therapy failure and that of MYC in the metastatic progression of human prostate cancer. (+info)
(7/3253) Alterations of Rb pathway (Rb-p16INK4-cyclin D1) in preinvasive bronchial lesions.
Lung cancer results from a stepwise accumulation of genetic and molecular abnormalities with unknown temporal relationships to precursor bronchial lesions. In a search for biomarkers of malignant progression, we analyzed the expression of the tumor suppressor gene Rb and of the proteins regulating its phosphorylation and function in G1 arrest, p16INK4A and cyclin D1, in preinvasive bronchial lesions accompanying cancer in 75 patients, in comparison with similar lesions in 22 patients with no cancer history. Rb was constantly expressed in preinvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ (CIS). In contrast, p16 expression was lost in moderate dysplasia (12%) and in CIS (30%) in patients with lung cancer. p16 loss occurred exclusively in patients who displayed loss of p16 expression in their related invasive carcinoma. Loss of p16 expression was not seen in nine patients with dysplasia but no cancer progression. Cyclin D1 overexpression was seen in hyperplasia and metaplasia (6%), mild dysplasia (17%), moderate dysplasia (46%), and CIS (38%) in patients with cancer but was lost in 5% of the patients during the process of invasion; it was also observed in patients with no cancer progression (14%). Our results indicate that Rb protein function can be invalidated before invasion through alteration of the Rb phosphorylation pathway, by p16 inhibition, and/or by cyclin D1 overexpression and suggest a role for p16 and cyclin D1 deregulation in progression of preinvasive bronchial lesions to invasive carcinoma. (+info)
(8/3253) Cyclin D1 proteolysis: a retinoid chemoprevention signal in normal, immortalized, and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.
BACKGROUND: Retinoids (derivatives of vitamin A) are reported to reduce the occurrence of some second primary cancers, including aerodigestive tract tumors. In contrast, beta-carotene does not reduce the occurrence of primary aerodigestive tract cancers. Mechanisms explaining these effective retinoid and ineffective carotenoid chemoprevention results are poorly defined. Recently, the all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-induced proteolysis of cyclin D1 that leads to the arrest of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle was described in human bronchial epithelial cells and is a promising candidate for such a mechanism. In this study, we have investigated this proteolysis as a common signal used by carotenoids or receptor-selective and receptor-nonselective retinoids. METHODS: We treated cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2BNNK) with receptor-selective or receptor-nonselective retinoids or with carotenoids and studied the effects on cell proliferation by means of tritiated thymidine incorporation and on cyclin D1 expression by means of immunoblot analysis. We also examined whether calpain inhibitor I, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome degradation pathway, affected the decline (i.e., proteolysis) of cyclin D1. RESULTS: Receptor-nonselective retinoids were superior to the carotenoids studied in mediating the decline in cyclin D1 expression and in suppressing the growth of bronchial epithelial cells. Retinoids that activated retinoic acid receptor beta or retinoid X receptor pathways preferentially led to a decrease in the amount of cyclin D1 protein and a corresponding decline in growth. The retinoid-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 was blocked by cotreatment with calpain inhibitor I. CONCLUSIONS: Retinoid-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis is a common chemoprevention signal in normal and neoplastic human bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, carotenoids did not affect cyclin D1 expression. Thus, the degradation of cyclin D1 is a candidate intermediate marker for effective retinoid-mediated cancer chemoprevention in the aerodigestive tract. (+info)