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(1/133) Cardiocutaneous fistula.

Infection of the Teflon pledgets on the heart suture line after left ventricular aneurysm repair, presenting late with a fistulous tract connecting the heart with the skin (cardiocutaneous fistula) is an uncommon but potentially serious condition. The case is reported of a 73 year old man who developed a cardiocutaneous fistula extending through the left hemidiaphragm and draining at the abdominal wall, which developed six years after left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Following radiographic evaluation, which established the diagnosis, the Teflon pledgets and fistulous tract were successfully surgically removed. Prompt diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion. Eradication of infection requires excision of infected material, which must be planned on an individual basis.  (+info)

(2/133) Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease.

BACKGROUND: Enterocutaneous fistulas are a serious complication of Crohn's disease and are difficult to treat. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha, has recently been developed as a treatment for Crohn's disease. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: The study included 94 adult patients who had draining abdominal or perianal fistulas of at least three months' duration as a complication of Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: placebo (31 patients), 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram of body weight (31 patients), or 10 mg of infliximab per kilogram (32 patients); all three were to be administered intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6. The primary end point was a reduction of 50 percent or more from base line in the number of draining fistulas observed at two or more consecutive study visits. A secondary end point was the closure of all fistulas. RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of the patients who received 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram and 56 percent of those who received 10 mg per kilogram achieved the primary end point, as compared with 26 percent of the patients in the placebo group (P=0.002 and P=0.02, respectively). In addition, 55 percent of the patients assigned to receive 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram and 38 percent of those assigned to 10 mg per kilogram had closure of all fistulas, as compared with 13 percent of the patients assigned to placebo (P=0.001 and P=0.04, respectively). The median length of time during which the fistulas remained closed was three months. More than 60 percent of patients in all the groups had adverse events. For patients treated with infliximab, the most common were headache, abscess, upper respiratory tract infection, and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab is an efficacious treatment for fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease.  (+info)

(3/133) Thyroglossal duct cysts: sonographic appearances in adults.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous reports have suggested that thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs) appear on sonograms as well-defined cystic masses with thin walls and posterior enhancement. In our experience, however, TDCs have a variable sonographic appearance. We report our findings in 40 patients with TDCs and document the variability of sonographic patterns. METHODS: All patients in whom the diagnosis of TDC was made clinically (by at least two head and neck surgeons) and sonography detected a cystic mass related to the hyoid bone were included in this study. Sonograms of 40 patients with TDCs were reviewed. The features evaluated were the location, internal echogenicity, posterior enhancement, presence of septa, solid component, and fistulous tract. The echo pattern was not compared with the biopsy results. RESULTS: Four patterns of TDCs were identified: anechoic (28%), homogeneously hypoechoic with internal debris (18%), pseudosolid (28%), and heterogeneous (28%). The majority showed posterior enhancement (88%), were midline (63%), and infrahyoid in location (83%). Only half of all TDCs showed a typical thin wall. CONCLUSION: On sonograms, TDCs in adults are not simple cysts, as previously suggested, but have a complex pattern ranging from a typical anechoic to a pseudosolid appearance.  (+info)

(4/133) Hydrogen peroxide enhanced ultrasound- fistulography in the assessment of enterocutaneous fistulas complicating Crohn's disease.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Proper management of enterocutaneous fistulas complicating Crohn's disease largely depends on the anatomical characteristics of the sinus tracks as well as the coexistence of complications such as abscesses and distal bowel stenosis. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new technique (hydrogen peroxide enhanced ultrasound (US)-fistulography) compared with conventional x ray fistulogram and/or surgical findings in the detection of Crohn's disease associated enterocutaneous fistulas. METHODS: Patients with known Crohn's disease and a suspicion of enterocutaneous fistulas were prospectively studied with this novel technique, conventional x ray fistulogram, and barium radiography as well as with computed tomography whenever an abdominal abscess was suspected at US. In those undergoing surgery, intraoperative findings were also compared. RESULTS: Seventeen of 502 (3.4%) consecutive patients with Crohn's disease seen over a ten month period had associated enterocutaneous fistulas and were enrolled. Hydrogen peroxide enhanced US-fistulography visualised the extent and configuration of fistula in all cases: 13 patients had a fistula arising from the ileum and two from the sigmoid colon, whereas in two there was no evidence of communication with intestinal loops; in contrast, conventional x ray fistulography missed a correct definition of the fistulous branches or communication with intestinal loops in 50% (4/8) and 36% (4/11) of patients respectively; barium radiography showed fistulas in two cases only. The presence of abscesses along or close to the sinus track, as well as the coexistence of intestinal stenosis, was correctly detected at US in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogen peroxide enhanced US-fistulography could be considered the diagnostic procedure of choice in Crohn's disease associated enterocutaneous fistulas, as it is at least as accurate, simple, and safe as conventional x ray fistulogram, does not miss coexisting abdominal complications, and also provides information on the diseased bowel segments. In addition, it can be easily repeated over time in order to monitor the course of fistulas undergoing conservative treatment.  (+info)

(5/133) Persistent frontal fistula.

The frontal sinus is prone to various complications--usually secondary to blockage of the fronto-nasal duct and stagnation of frontal sinus secretions. These pent-up secretions may result in pressure necrosis of the inferior or posterior sinus wall. Involvement of anterior wall is uncommon. We present a case of an anterior wall frontal sinus fistula and discuss its management.  (+info)

(6/133) Possibilities of preventing osteoradionecrosis during complex therapy of tumors of the oral cavity.

In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of tumors of the head and neck. Their successful treatment is one of the greatest challenges for physicians dealing with oncotherapy. An organic part of the complex therapy is preoperative or postoperative irradiation. Application of this is accompanied by a lower risk of recurrences, and by a higher proportion of cured patients. Unfortunately, irradiation also has a disadvantage: the development of osteoradionecrosis, a special form of osteomyelitis, in some patients (mainly in those cases where irradiation occurs after bone resection or after partial removal of the periosteum). Once the clinical picture of this irradiation complication has developed, its treatment is very difficult. A significant result or complete freedom from complaints can be attained only rarely. Attention must therefore be focussed primarily on prevention, and the oral surgeon, the oncoradiologist and the patient too can all do much to help prevent the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis. Through coupling of an up-to-date, functional surgical attitude with knowledge relating to modern radiology and radiation physics, the way may be opened to forestall this complication that is so difficult to cure.  (+info)

(7/133) Neck infection associated with pyriform sinus fistula: imaging findings.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute suppurative neck infections associated with branchial fistulas are frequently recurrent. In this study, we describe the imaging findings of acute suppurative infection of the neck caused by a third or fourth branchial fistula (pyriform sinus fistula). METHODS: Imaging findings were reviewed in 17 patients (11 female and six male patients, 2 to 49 years old) with neck infection associated with pyriform sinus fistula. Surgery or laryngoscopic examination confirmed the diagnoses. Fourteen patients had a history of recurrent neck infection and seven had cutaneous openings on the anterior portion of the neck (all lesions were on the left side). Imaging studies included barium esophagography (n = 16), CT (n = 14), MR imaging (n = 2), and sonography (n = 3). RESULTS: A sinus or fistulous tract was identified in eight of 16 patients on barium esophagograms. In 14 patients, CT studies showed the inflammatory infiltration and/or abscess formation along the course of the sinus or fistulous tract from the pyriform fossa to the thyroid gland. In nine patients, CT scans showed the entire course or a part of the sinus or fistulous tract as a tiny spot containing air. MR images showed a sinus or fistulous tract in two patients, whereas sonograms could not depict a sinus or fistulous tract in three patients. All 17 patients were treated with antibiotics. In one patient, the sinus tract was surgically excised, while 15 patients underwent chemocauterization of the sinus or fistulous tract with good outcome. Follow-up was possible for 16 of the 17 patients. CONCLUSION: When an inflammatory infiltration or abscess is present between the pyriform fossa and the thyroid bed in the lower left part of the neck, an infected third or fourth branchial fistula should be strongly suspected.  (+info)

(8/133) Lymphocutaneous fistula as a long-term complication of multiple central venous catheter placement.

We report a case of a lymphocutaneous fistula in a 19-month-old boy who had been a premature neonate, born in the 23rd week of gestation. The fistula, an apparent complication of central venous line placement during the patient's first 5 months of life, was composed of a distinct lymphatic vessel bundle in the right supraclavicular region, with its exit point at the posterior aspect of the right shoulder. The drainage ceased immediately after resection and repair of a 1-cm obstruction in the superior vena cava.  (+info)