Formosadimers A, B, and C from the Bark of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana.
(9/31)Formosadimers A, B, and C, together with one known compound, sugikurojin B, have been isolated from the bark of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana. Formosadimers A, B, and C, and sugikurojin B are dimers of the abietane-O-abietane type. Their structures were elucidated principally based on spectroscopic data. (+info)
Aerobiological and allergenic analysis of cupressaceae pollen in Granada (Southern Spain).
(10/31)Cupressaceae pollen has been cited in recent years as one of the major airborne allergens of the Mediterranean region, prompting us to conduct an exhaustive analysis on the aerobiological behaviour of this pollen in the Iberian Peninsula and the repercussion that it has had on the atopic population. The aerobiological study, performed from 1996 to 2003 in the city of Granada (S. Spain), used a volumetric Hirst collector. The results indicate that this pollen is present in the air most of the year, registering a high incidence during the winter months. This type of pollen behaved irregularly in the air, fluctuating yearly, seasonally, and within the same day. Temperature and humidity were the parameters that most directly influence the variability of this allergen, while rainfall prior to flowering increased pollen production. The predictive models used estimated a high percentage of the levels reached over the short term by this pollen in the atmosphere of Granada. The clinical study performed with atopic patients showed that some 30% of the population with pollinosis are sensitive to Cupressaceae pollen, affecting people of both genders equally. On the other hand, the most sensitive age group was 21-40 years of age, while children and the elderly registered almost negligible values. Most of the sensitive subjects resided within the city or in the metropolitan area, where environmental pollution reached high levels, while the pathology was found to be less frequent in rural zones. The most frequent symptoms were upper-respiratory ailments and an asthmatic profile. (+info)
Differences in the spatial distribution of airborne pollen concentrations at different urban locations within a city.
(11/31)BACKGROUND: The objective of the present work was to compare pollen counts at three different urban locations within a city to each other and to the counts from a fixed trap. This information could be useful to delimit zones in the urbanized part of the city according to the risk of allergic affections. METHODS: Aerobiological sampling using portable traps was carried out at three points in urban zones of the city of Badajoz (SW Spain) over one year at the same time as continuous sampling using a fixed trap at a point in the nonurban outskirts of the city. The sources of airborne pollen were studied by counting the trees in the streets and squares of the selected zones. A statistical analysis was performed of the differences between the portable and fixed traps and of the temporal and spatial variation in the city as a function of the distribution of the most important pollen sources. RESULTS: Forty-eight pollen types were identified with the fixed trap, and 28 with the portable traps. The grass, olive, and oak pollens come from almost exclusively external sources, there being no spatial differences in their concentrations in the city. Cypress pollen concentrations were much higher at the urban locations than at the fixed trap site. Plane tree pollen levels could be locally very high, reflecting the proximity of the source. Except for ornamental plants, pollen levels were lower at the urban locations than at the site on the outskirts of the city. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Using portable traps at different urban zones in a city could provide information about the spatial variation of atmospheric pollen levels. (2) A knowledge of the often widely variable distribution of ornamental plants with potentially allergenic pollen could be useful in indicating city zones with a greater or lesser incidence of potential pollinosis. (+info)
Associations among pollen sensitizations from different botanical species in patients living in the northern area of Madrid.
(12/31)OBJECTIVE: To determinate the existence of associations among sensitizations to antigens produced by pollen grains of different botanical species as assessed by skin prick tests in patients with respiratory disorders. METHODS: Six hundred twenty nine consecutive patients living in the northern area of Madrid who underwent clinical evaluation because of rhinoconjunctivitis, and/or asthma were studied. All patients were tested with a skin prick test using a battery of inhalants including pollens, dust mites, molds and danders. The exploratory multivariate technique of Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to compare the homogeneity of sensitizations between groups. Of the 629 patients, 459 (73.0%) had positive skin prick tests to pollen and were selected as the study group. RESULTS: The most prevalent pollen sensitization was to Gramineae pollen (83.7%) followed by Oleaceae sensitisation (75.8%). Multiple Correspondence Analysis revealed the existence of an association among pollen sensitizations, showing that they clustered two groups: sensitizations to Gramineae, Oleaceae, Cupressaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Plantaginaceae (group I), and sensitizations to Betulaceae, Platanaceae, Compositae (group II). Sensitization to Parietaria was not included in any of the sensitization groups and showed an independent behaviour. CONCLUSION: Pollen sensitizations in our area cluster into two association groups which have not previously been reported. (+info)
Development of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR to detect arcobacter species.
(13/31)A real-time PCR targeting the gyrase A subunit gene outside the quinolone resistance-determining region has been developed to detect Arcobacter species. The species identification was done by probe hybridization and melting curve analysis, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology. Discrimination between Arcobacter species was straightforward, as the corresponding melting points showed significant differences with the characteristic melting temperatures of 63.5 degrees C, 58.4 degrees C, 60.6 degrees C, and 51.8 degrees C for the Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Arcobacter cibarius, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis type strains, respectively. The specificity of this assay was confirmed with pure cultures of 106 Arcobacter isolates from human clinical and veterinary specimens identified by phenotypic methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The assay was then used to screen 345 clinical stool samples obtained from patients with diarrhea. The assay detected A. butzleri in four of these clinical samples (1.2%). These results were confirmed by a conventional PCR method targeting the 16S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the PCR product. In conclusion, this real-time assay detects and differentiates Arcobacter species in pure culture as well as in the competing microbiota of the stool matrix. The assay is economical since only one biprobe is used and multiple Arcobacter species are identified in a single test. (+info)
Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of Cupressaceae pollen type in Ponferrada (Leon, Spain).
(14/31)In order to survive periods of adverse cold climatic conditions, plant requirements are satisfied by means of physiological adaptations to prevent cells from freezing. Thus, the growth of woody plants in temperate regions slows down and they enter into a physiological state called dormancy. In order to identify the chilling and heat requirements to overcome the dormancy period of Cupressaceae pollen type in the south of Europe, we have carried out our study with aerobiological data from a 10-year (1996-2005) period in Ponferrada, Leon (Spain). For the chilling requirements the best result was with a threshold temperature of 7.1 degrees C and an average of 927 CH. Calculation of heat requirements was carried out with maximum temperature, with 490 growth degree days (GDD) needed, with a threshold temperature of 0 degrees C. We have used the 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 periods in order to determine the real validity of the model. We have not used these years in developing the models. The dates predicted differ in only a few days from those observed: in 2002-2003 there was a difference of 11 days, in 2003-2004 predicted and observed dates were the same, but in 2004-2005 the difference obtained was of 43 days. (+info)
Cupressaceae pollen grains modulate dendritic cell response and exhibit IgE-inducing adjuvant activity in vivo.
Short-term effects of airborne pollens on asthma attacks as seen by general practitioners in the Greater Paris area, 2003-2007.