Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD): a comprehensive review.
Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) represents a well-recognized clinical problem with a reported incidence among individuals with a diagnosis of intractable epilepsy as high as 36%. A failure to identify this disorder may lead to certain risks for the patient including polypharmacy, anticonvulsant toxicity, hazardous intervention, social and economic demands and a lack of recognition or neglect of any underlying psychological distress. This review provides a description of NEAD in an historic and societal context and discusses the variety of terminology which has been applied to this psychophysiological phenomenon. Epidemiology and associated methodological limitations; and diagnostic and classification issues related to NEAD in comparison to epilepsy are considered. The problems of failure to recognize NEAD in comparison to epilepsy are considered. The problems of failure to recognize NEAD are outlined, and theoretical and empirical aetiological issues are discussed. (+info)
Oligomycin induces a decrease in the cellular content of a pathogenic mutation in the human mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene.
A T --> G mutation at position 8993 in human mitochondrial DNA is associated with the syndrome neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa and with a maternally inherited form of Leigh's syndrome. The mutation substitutes an arginine for a leucine at amino acid position 156 in ATPase 6, a component of the F0 portion of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex. Fibroblasts harboring high levels of the T8993G mutation have decreased ATP synthesis activity, but do not display any growth defect under standard culture conditions. Combining the notions that cells with respiratory chain defects grow poorly in medium containing galactose as the major carbon source, and that resistance to oligomycin, a mitochondrial inhibitor, is associated with mutations in the ATPase 6 gene in the same transmembrane domain where the T8993G amino acid substitution is located, we created selective culture conditions using galactose and oligomycin that elicited a pathological phenotype in T8993G cells and that allowed for the rapid selection of wild-type over T8993G mutant cells. We then generated cytoplasmic hybrid clones containing heteroplasmic levels of the T8993G mutation, and showed that selection in galactose-oligomycin caused a significant increase in the fraction of wild-type molecules (from 16 to 28%) in these cells. (+info)
Environment, development and health: ideological metaphors of post-traditional societies?
Environment and health have become nearly interchangeable concepts in post-traditional societies. We are able to observe almost an obsession with them, as if individual changes in ways of life--important for the individual and significant for the culture though they may be--possessed the power to overthrow a system of economic relations that aims at growth in numerical terms rather than at development, enabling society to sustain its specific modes of private and public interaction. (+info)
Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom.
Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A. D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families. (+info)
Folkecology and commons management in the Maya Lowlands.
Three groups living off the same rainforest habitat manifest strikingly distinct behaviors, cognitions, and social relationships relative to the forest. Only the area's last native Maya reveal systematic awareness of ecological complexity involving animals, plants, and people and practices clearly favoring forest regeneration. Spanish-speaking immigrants prove closer to native Maya in thought, action, and social networking than do immigrant Maya. There is no overriding "local," "Indian," or "immigrant" relationship to the environment. Results indicate that exclusive concern with rational self-interest and institutional constraints do not sufficiently account for commons behavior and that cultural patterning of cognition and access to relevant information are significant predictors. Unlike traditional accounts of relations between culture, cognition, and behavior, the models offered are not synthetic interpretations of people's thoughts and behaviors but are emergent cultural patterns derived statistically from measurements of individual cognitions and behaviors. (+info)
'Fatalism', accident causation and prevention: issues for health promotion from an exploratory study in a Yoruba town, Nigeria.
As countries experience the 'epidemiological transition' with a relative decline in infectious diseases, accident rates tend to increase, particularly road traffic accidents. The health promotion interventions intended to prevent or minimize the consequences of accidents have been developed in predominantly Western, industrialized countries. Although some of these solutions have been applied with success to less developed countries, there are also good reasons why such solutions are ineffective when tried in a different context. Health promotion as developed in the West has a particular ideological bias, being framed within a secular, individualist and rationalist culture. Different cosmologies exist outside this culture, often described as 'fatalist' by Western commentators and as obstructing change. Changing these cosmologies or worldviews may not fit with the ethic of paying due respect to the cultural traditions of the 'target group'. Health promotion is therefore faced with a dilemma. In addition to different worldviews, the different levels of development also mean that solutions formulated in richer countries do not suit poorer countries. This paper uses a small exploratory study in a Yoruba town in Nigeria to examine these points. Interviews with key informants were held in March 1994 in Igbo-Ora and data were extracted from hospital records. Levels of accidents from available records are noted and people's ideas about accident prevention are discussed. Recommendations as to the way forward are then proposed. (+info)
Protective truthfulness: the Chinese way of safeguarding patients in informed treatment decisions.
The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating to patients are two cardinal virtues that health care professionals are required to possess. This notion of absolute sincerity carries a strong sense of parental protectiveness. The empirical findings reveal that most nurses are ambivalent about telling the truth to patients. Truth-telling would become an insincere act if a patient were to lose hope and confidence in life after learning of his or her disease. In this system of protective medical care, it is arguable as to whose interests are being protected: the patient, the family or the hospital. I would suggest that the interests of the hospital and the family members who legitimately represent the patient's interests are being honoured, but at the expense of the patient's right to know. (+info)
The recognition, assessment and management of dementing disorders: conclusions from the Canadian Consensus Conference on Dementia.
OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence based consensus statements on which to build clinical practice guidelines for primary care physicians toward the recognition, assessment and management of dementing disorders and to disseminate and evaluate the impact of these statements and guidelines built on these statements. OPTIONS: Structured approach to assessment, including recommended laboratory tests, choices for neuroimaging and referral, management of complications (especially behavioural problems and depression) and use of cognitive enhancing agents. POTENTIAL OUTCOMES: Consistent and improved clinical care of persons with dementia; cost containment by more selective use of laboratory investigations; neuroimaging and referrals; and appropriate use of cognitive enhancing agents. EVIDENCE: Authors of each background paper were entrusted to perform a literature search, discover additional relevant material, including references cited in retrieved articles, consult with other experts in the field and then synthesize information. Standard rules of evidence were applied. Based on this evidence, consensus statements were developed by a group of experts, guided by a steering committee of 8 individuals, from the areas of Neurology, Geriatric Medicine, Psychiatry, Family Medicine, Preventive Health Care and Health Care Systems. VALUES: Recommendations have been developed with particular attention to the context of primary care, and are intended to support family physicians in their ongoing assessment and care of patients with dementia. BENEFITS HARM AND COSTS: Potential for improved clinical care of people with dementia. A dissemination and evaluation strategy will attempt to measure the impact of the recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS: Forty-eight recommendations are offered that address the following aspects of dementia care: early recognition; importance of careful history and examination in making a positive diagnosis; essential laboratory tests; rules for neuroimaging and referral; disclosure of diagnosis; importance of monitoring and providing support to caregivers; cultural aspects; detection and treatment of depression; observation and management of behavioural disturbances; detection and reporting of unsafe motor vehicle driving; genetic factors and opportunities for preventing dementia; pharmacological treatment with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancing agents. VALIDATION: Four other sets of consensus statement or guidelines have been published recently. These recommendations are generally congruent with our own consensus statements. The consensus statements have been endorsed by relevant bodies in Canada. (+info)