Does vestibular stimulation activate thalamocortical mechanisms that reintegrate impaired cortical regions?
Caloric stimulation induced a transient reversal of multimodal hemispatial cognitive deficits in an 81-year-old woman with an acute left cerebral hemisphere stroke. The patient had unawareness of her right hand (asomatognosia), right-sided visual unawareness (hemineglect), aphasia and right-sided weakness (hemiplegia) prior to the stimulation. Transient improvements in impaired sensory, motor, linguistic and cognitive function developed within 30 s following application of the caloric stimulus and onset of horizontal nystagmus. The effect persisted for 3 min and ceased completely after 5 min. While several recent reports have described the capacity of caloric stimulation to transiently improve or reverse a wide range of attentional, cognitive and motor impairments, most examples are in right-hemisphere-damaged patients with long-standing brain injury. Typically, patients have been tested several months or years after the onset of the deficit. A possible mechanism for the temporary reintegration of multiple cognitive functions in this patient is discussed. (+info)
Intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: analysis of 60 cases.
AIM: To evaluate the clinical features, treatment results, and recurrence rates in patients with either intraepithelial or invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 60 cases (22 conjunctival intraepithelial and 38 invasive squamous cell carcinomas) to determine patterns of clinical presentation, aetiological factors, and treatment results. The mean patient age was 64 years old. 70% of the patients were male. Patients were treated with a variety of therapies, depending on the degree of tumour involvement; most cases were treated with frozen section controlled excision and adjunctive cryotherapy. Modified eye wall resection or enucleation was done for intraocular invasion and exenteration was done for orbital involvement. RESULTS: Red eye (68%) and ocular irritation (57%) were the most common presenting symptoms. 44% of the patients had other eye findings consistent with extensive solar exposure. 20% of the patients had a history of malignant skin tumours. Visceral malignancies developed in 8%. Scleral involvement was present in 14 (37%), intraocular involvement in five (13%), and orbital invasion in four (11%) cases with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. After a mean follow up of 56 months (18-226 months) the rate of new or recurrent tumours was 4.5% for intraepithelial squamous carcinoma and 5.3% for invasive squamous cell carcinoma. No patient developed metastases or tumour related deaths. CONCLUSION: Excision with intraoperative control of the surgical margins and adjunctive cryotherapy results in good tumour control rates. (+info)
Frostbite at the gym: a case report of an ice pack burn.
The case is reported of a 59 year old woman who suffered a 1% total body surface area superficial partial thickness burn to her calf following the application of an ice pack. The cause, resulting injury, and subsequent management are discussed. It is possible that such injuries are common, but no similar reports were found in a literature search. Awareness of the risk of this type of injury is important for all those entrusted with advising patients on the treatment of minor soft tissue injuries. (+info)
Treatment of retinal tears and lattice degenerations in fellow eyes in high risk patients suffering retinal detachment: a prospective study.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fellow eye prophylaxis for retinal detachment (RD) is still a controversial issue since opinions are not unanimous regarding the kind of lesions to be treated or the method of treatment. This prospective clinical study aimed to follow the course of vitreoretinal conditions in 150 high risk fellow eyes. METHODS: 150 consecutive patients with unilateral rhegmatogenous RD were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were good explorability of fellow eye retinal periphery and one of the following conditions in the fellow eye-aphakia, pseudophakia with capsulotomy, high myopia (>-6D), contralateral eye to a giant retinal tear. Prophylactic treatment (photocoagulation or scleral buckling) was performed in the presence of retinal tears and lattice degenerations. The state of the vitreous body was determined at the beginning of the study and at the end, when RD occurred. RESULTS: Follow up ranged from 36 to 132 months. 95 fellow eyes were subjected to laser treatment; five eyes underwent prophylactic surgical treatment. Initially, in the treated group posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) was present in 100 eyes (100% of cases), but as a complete PVD only in 42 of them (42%). 10 eyes in the treated group developed RD during the follow up period. In five of these cases the partial PVD had progressed and a retinal tear in a previously healthy area was the cause of the retinal detachment. In the other five eyes RD apparently developed from previously treated lesions. Progression of PVD was evident in four out of these five eyes. The untreated eyes had no visible degenerative lesions. During follow up eight eyes developed RD. These eyes had no PVD at the beginning of the study, but showed a partial PVD at the time of the diagnosis of RD. CONCLUSION: Fellow eyes with pre-existing retinal tears and PVDs can go on to retinal detachment in spite of laser prophylactic treatment. When PVD is not detectable or a partial PVD is present, the progression of posterior vitreous separation can account for retinal tears and RDs arising in formerly healthy areas. (+info)
Patient selection for salvage cryotherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy.
PURPOSE: Our objective was to identify clinical pretreatment factors associated with early treatment failure after salvage cryotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1992 and 1995, 145 patients underwent salvage cryotherapy for locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Treatment failure was defined as an increasing postcryotherapy serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of more than or equal to 2 ng/mL above the postcryotherapy nadir or as a positive posttreatment biopsy. We evaluated the following factors as predictors of treatment failure: tumor stage and grade at initial diagnosis, type of prior therapy, stage and grade of locally recurrent tumor, number of positive biopsy cores at recurrence, and precryotherapy PSA level. RESULTS: Among patients with a prior history of radiation therapy only, the 2-year actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 74% for patients with a precryotherapy PSA less than 10 ng/mL and 28% for patients with a precryotherapy PSA more than 10 ng/mL, P <.00001. The DFS rates were 58% for patients with a Gleason score of less than or equal to 8 recurrence and 29% for patients with a Gleason score greater than or equal to 9 recurrence, P <.004. Among patients with a precryotherapy PSA less than 10 ng/mL, DFS rates were 74% for patients with a prior history of radiation therapy only and 19% for patients with a history of prior hormonal therapy plus radiation therapy, P <.002. CONCLUSION: Patients failing initial radiation therapy with a PSA more than 10 ng/mL and Gleason score of the recurrent cancer more than or equal to 9 are unlikely to be successfully salvaged. Patients failing initial hormonal therapy and radiation therapy are less likely to be successfully salvaged than patients failing radiation therapy only. (+info)
Combined nevi of the conjunctiva.
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and histologic features of combined nevi of the conjunctiva, a type of nevus that is not uncommon in the skin but has rarely been reported in the conjunctiva. METHODS: Conjunctival nevi and melanomas from the files of the University of California, San Francisco, eye pathology laboratory were reviewed from 1984 to 1999 for the presence of features of both standard nevocytic nevi and blue nevi. Clinical histories and, when available, clinical photographs were obtained. RESULTS: Thirty-one combined nevi were discovered during the 15-year period between 1984 and 1999. One case before 1984 had been incorrectly diagnosed as a junctional nevus. The dendritic and spindle-shaped blue nevus cells had been overlooked because they were not recognized as distinct from the standard nevocytic nevus cells. The recognition of a blue as well as a brown color, a deep as well as a superficial component in the lesion, or a history of pigmentation since birth may help to establish the correct clinical diagnosis and prevent an unnecessarily deep surgical resection. Although growth of the lesion or "satellites" in some patients may favor a clinical diagnosis of melanoma, none of the lesions in this series were malignant. CONCLUSION: Despite a paucity of reports of combined nevi of the conjunctiva in the medical literature, this type of nevus--a combination of a nevocytic and a blue nevus--is common and has been overlooked in the past. (+info)
Complete shutdown of microvascular perfusion upon hepatic cryothermia is critically dependent on local tissue temperature.
Since microvascular dysfunction with complete circulatory arrest and, thus, prolongation of tissue ischaemia is considered a potential mechanism for cell necrosis following hepatic cryosurgery, we determined the temperature necessary for induction of complete nutritive perfusion failure in cryothermia-treated rat livers. After localization of the cryoprobe with seven thermocouples and application of a single or double freeze-thaw cycle, in vivo fluorescence microscopy of the cryoinjured left lobe was performed over a 2-h period using a computer-controlled stepping motor, which guaranteed analysis of the identical liver tissue segments with exact allocation of the thermocouples and thus determination of tissue temperature. Cryothermia resulted in a central non-perfused part of injury, surrounded by a heterogeneously perfused peripheral zone. The non-perfused area after single and double freezing continuously increased over the first 90-min period due to a successive shutdown of perfusion within the peripheral border zone. Analysis of the thermocouples' temperature at the end of freezing revealed the 0 degrees C-front at 11.7 mm (single freeze-thaw cycle) and 12.1 mm (double freeze-thaw cycle) distant from the centre of the cryoprobe, which exactly corresponds with the initial (30 min) expansion of the area with nutritive perfusion failure. The increased non-perfused tissue area at 2 h conformed a critical border temperature between 8.29 +/- 1.63 degrees C and 9.07 +/- 0.24 degrees C. From these findings, we conclude that freezing of liver tissue to temperatures of at least < 0 degrees C causes complete/irreversible perfusion failure, which consequently will result in cell death and tissue necrosis, and may thus be supposed as a prerequisite for the safe and successful application of cryosurgery in hepatic tumour ablation. (+info)
A case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman.
This is a case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman complaining of a sudden onset of nasal side field defect of the right eye. The patient had been suffering from uveitis for ten months. Fundoscopic examination of the right eye showed a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Furthermore, a retinochoroidal granulomatous lesion was observed nearby the tear site. Scleral buckling, cryotherapy, and gas injection(SF6, pure gas, 0.7 cc) were conducted. Mebendazole was prescribed for one month at 25 mg/kg per body weight daily. Even though the interventions resulted in the recovery of the field defect, anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE titer levels did not decrease when checked three months after the treatment ended. This is the first confirmed serological ocular toxocariasis case in Korea. Uveitis may be a clinical presentation prior to retinal detachment of a person with toxocariasis. (+info)