Lead-selective membrane potentiometric sensor based on an 18-membered thiacrown derivative.
A PVC-based membrane electrode for lead ions based on hexathia-18-crown-6-tetraone as membrane carrier was prepared. The influence of membrane composition, pH of test solution and foreign ions on the electrode performance were investigated. The electrode showed a Nernstian response over a lead concentration range from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 8.0 x 10(-3) M at 25 degrees C, and was found to be very selective, precise and usable within the pH range 3.0-6.0. The electrode was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of lead ions and in direct determination of lead in water samples. (+info)
Selective transport of silver ion through a supported liquid membrane using hexathia-18-crown-6 as carrier.
A facile supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for the selective and efficient transport of silver ion is introduced. The SLM used is a thin porous polyvinyldifluoride membrane impregnated with hexathia-18-crown-6 (HT18C6) dissolved in nitrophenyloctyl ether. HT18C6 acts as a specific carrier for the uphill transport of Ag+ ion as its picrate ion paired complex through the SLM. In the presence of thiosulfate ion as a suitable stripping agent in the strip solution, transport of silver occurs almost quantitatively after 4 h. The selectivity and efficiency of silver transport from aqueous solutions containing other Mn+ cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions were investigated. (+info)
Role of hypoxia during normal retinal vessel development and in experimental retinopathy of prematurity.
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that retinal hypoxia is present during vascular development in normal rat pups and in a newborn rat model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Preretinal vitreous PO(2) measurements were made during room air breathing using (19)F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and a perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether droplet in normal adult and newborn (postnatal day [P]1-P20) rats, and in newborn rats exposed first to 14 days of variable oxygen (before NV) and six additional days in room air after variable oxygen exposure (during NV). After each experiment, blood gas values were measured, and retinas were isolated. Retinas were adenosine diphosphatase (ADPase) stained, and flatmounted to determine peripheral avascular extent and NV incidence and severity. RESULTS: In the vascularized rat retina, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between the droplet-derived preretinal vitreous oxygen tension (24 +/- 2 mm Hg, mean +/- SEM, n = 18) and previously reported electrode-measured oxygen tension (22 +/- 1 mm Hg). Only during normal retinal vessel growth (P1-P10) and before the appearance of NV was evidence for retinal hypoxia found at the border of the vascular and avascular retina. However, the mean PO(2) (range, 24-28 mm Hg) over the vascular retina was not different (P > 0.05) between any of the newborn rat groups in this study. CONCLUSIONS: (19)F MRS of a perfluorocarbon droplet provides an accurate measure of preretinal vitreous oxygen tension in rats. These data support an important role of physiologic hypoxia in normal retinal circulatory development and raises the possibility that, in experimental ROP, retinal hypoxia is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of retinal NV. (+info)
Selective molecular recognition of arginine by anionic salt bridge formation with bis-phosphate crown ethers: implications for gas phase peptide acidity from adduct dissociation.
Arginine forms a stable noncovalent anionic salt bridge complex with DP (a crown ether which contains two endocyclic dialkylhydrogenphosphate esters). Abundant adduct formation with DP is observed for complexes with arginine, YAKR, HPPGFSPFR, AAKRKAA, RR, RPPGFSPFR, RYLGYL, RGDS, and YGGFMRGL in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. DFT calculations predict a hydrogen bonded salt bridge structure with a protonated guanidinium flanked by two deprotonated phosphates to be the lowest energy structure. Dissociation of DP/peptide adducts reveals that, in general, the relative gas phase acidity of a peptide is dependent on peptide length, with longer peptides being more acidic. In particular, peptides that are six residues or more in length can stabilize the deprotonated C-terminus by extensive hydrogen bonding with the peptide backbone. Dissociation of DP/peptide complexes often yields the deprotonated peptide, allowing for the facile formation of anionic peptides that otherwise would be difficult to generate in high abundance. Although DP has a preference for binding to arginine residues in peptides, DP is also observed to form less abundant complexes with peptides containing multiple lysines. Lys-Xxx-Lys and Lys-Lys sequences form low abundance anionic adducts with DP. For example, KKKK exclusively forms a double adduct with one net negative charge on the complex. (+info)
Potentiometric determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical preparations by crown ether-PVC membrane sensors.
Two simple, rapid and sensitive sensors for the assay of dopamine hydrochloride have been developed. The methods are based upon the formation of the membrane sensors 12-crown-4-phosphotungestic acid (crown ether-PTA)-dopamine and 12-crown-4-tetraphenylborate (crown ether-TPB)-dopamine as neutral carriers. The sensors were stable and showed fast potential responses of 10 s, and near-Nernstian cationic slopes of 53.3 - 56.2 mV/decade of activity between pH 2.2 - 6 for the monovalent dopamine cation over a wide range concentrations 1 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-1) M. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity for dopamine over a large number of organic and inorganic species and pharmaceutical excipients. The mediator o-nitrophenyloctyl ether significantly affected the lifetime of the fabricated sensors of dopamine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the determination of dopamine in dosage form by the proposed sensors with an average recovery of 99.85% for the nominal concentration. (+info)
Field-dependent effect of crown ether (18-crown-6) on ionic conductance of alpha-hemolysin channels.
Closing linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into a circular "crown" dramatically changes its dynamics in the alpha-hemolysin channel. In the electrically neutral crown ether (C2H4O)6, six ethylene oxide monomers are linked into a circle that gives the molecule ion-complexing capacity and increases its rigidity. As with linear PEG, addition of the crown to the membrane-bathing solution decreases the ionic conductance of the channel and generates additional conductance noise. However, in contrast to linear PEG, both the conductance reduction (reporting on crown partitioning into the channel pore) and the noise (reporting on crown dynamics in the pore) now depend on voltage strongly and nonmonotonically. Within the whole frequency range accessible in channel reconstitution experiments, the noise power spectrum is "white", showing that crown exchange between the channel and the bulk solution is fast. Analyzing these data in the framework of a Markovian two-state model, we are able to characterize the process quantitatively. We show that the lifetime of the crown in the channel reaches its maximum (a few microseconds) at about the same voltage (approximately 100 mV, negative from the side of protein addition) where the crown's reduction of the channel conductance is most pronounced. Our interpretation is that, because of its rigidity, the crown feels an effective steric barrier in the narrowest part of the channel pore. This barrier together with crown-ion complexing and resultant interaction with the applied field leads to behavior usually associated with voltage-dependent binding in the channel pore. (+info)
Microcalorimetric study on host-guest complexation of naphtho-15-crown-5 with four ions of alkaline earth metal.
Thermodynamic parameters of complexation of naphto-15-crown-5 with four alkaline earth ions in aqueous media was determined using titration microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The stability of the complexes, thermal effect and entropy effect of the complexation is discussed on the basis of the guest ions structure and the solvent effect. The stability constants tendency to vary with ion radius was interpreted. Complex of naphtha-15-crown-5 with calcium ion is very stable due to the synergism of static electric interaction and size selectivity between the host and the guest. (+info)
A novel ternary ligand system useful for preparation of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes and (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules.
This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC), and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with (99m)Tc results in cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes, [(99m)Tc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with (99m)TcO4- at 100 degrees C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminomethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxyethylamine (PNP6) at 100 degrees C for 15 min to give the complex, [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (>90%). Cationic complexes [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for > or = 6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer ((99m)Tc) level and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes. Results from a (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands. (+info)