The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating croup: meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that examine the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in children with croup. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Score on scale measuring severity of croup, use of cointerventions (adrenaline (epinephrine), antibiotics, or supplemental glucocorticoids), length of stay in accident and emergency or in hospital, and rate of hospitalisation. RESULTS: Twenty four studies met the inclusion criteria. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with an improvement in the croup severity score at 6 hours with an effect size of -1.0 (95% confidence interval -1.5 to -0.6) and at 12 hours -1.0 (-1.6 to -0.4); at 24 hours this improvement was no longer significant (-1.0, -2.0 to 0.1). There was a decrease in the number of adrenaline treatments needed in children treated with glucocorticoids: a decrease of 9% (95% confidence interval 2% to 16%) among those treated with budesonide and of 12% (4% to 20%) among those treated with dexamethasone. There was also a decrease in the length of time spent in accident and emergency (-11 hours, 95% confidence interval -18 to 4 hours), and for inpatients hospital stay was reduced by 16 hours (-31 to 1 hour). Publication bias seems to play a part in these results. CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone and budesonide are effective in relieving the symptoms of croup as early as 6 hours after treatment. Fewer cointerventions are used and the length of time spent in hospital is decreased in patients treated with glucocorticoids. (+info)
Clinical characteristics of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children in Seoul, 1996-1998.
This study was performed to investigate the etiologic agents, age distribution, clinical manifestations and seasonal occurrence of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in children. We confirmed viral etiologies using nasopharyngeal aspirates in 237 patients of the ages of 15 years or younger who were hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) from March 1996 to February 1998 at Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The overall isolation rate was 22.1%. The viral pathogens identified were adenovirus (12.7%), influenza virus type A (21.1%), -type B (13.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (13.5%), -type 2 (1.3%), -type 3 (16.0%) and respiratory syncytial virus (21.5%). The occurrence of ALRIs was highest in the first year of life, although parainfluenza virus type 1 infection occurred predominantly in the second year of life and influenza virus caused illnesses in all age groups. The specific viruses are frequently associated with specific clinical syndromes of ALRI. The respiratory agents and associated syndromes frequently have characteristic seasonal patterns. This study will help us to estimate the etiologic agents of ALRI, and establish a program for the prevention and treatment. An annual nationwide survey is necessary to understand the viral epidemiology associated with respiratory illnesses in Korea. (+info)
Nebulised steroid in the treatment of croup: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
BACKGROUND: Croup is one of the commonest respiratory complaints among children. There is growing evidence that steroids may be an effective treatment. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of treatment with nebulised steroid for children with croup. METHOD: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing administration of nebulised steroid with placebo. Trials were identified from searches of three bibliographic databases, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, correspondence with the manufacturers of nebulised steroid, and one round of manual citation searching. RESULTS: Eight randomised controlled trials were identified including 574 children with mild to severe croup. Overall, the mean age was 25.2 months and 72% of children were male. All trials were hospital-based and of good methodological quality, with adequate concealment of treatment allocation and blind outcome assessment. Children treated with nebulised steroid were significantly more likely to show an improvement in croup score by five hours (combined relative risk = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.74) and significantly less likely to need hospital admission after attending the emergency department (combined relative risk = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.75) than the placebo group. The funnel plot indicated the presence of publication bias, with smaller studies showing the larger effects, but this could also be owing to less pronounced effects in studies of older children with milder croup. CONCLUSIONS: Nebulised steroids are effective in the treatment of children attending hospital departments with croup. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data could clarify to what extent the effect depends on age and severity of disease. New trials are needed to define the indications for, and effectiveness of, steroid treatment of croup in the community. (+info)
Do steroids prevent reintubation in children with laryngotracheobronchitis?
BACKGROUND: Classic laryngotrachoebronchitis (LTB) is an inflammatory process, with oedema and secretions that involve the entire laryngotracheobronchial tree. The severity of lower airway disease in African children with LTB has previously been documented. The aim of the present study was to determine whether steroids prevent reintubation in African children with classic LTB. METHOD AND RESULTS: The study was a retrospective analysis from January 1993 to December 1996. Eighty-two black children with LTB were mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU). By univariate regression, the estimated B coefficients for variables such as age, pneumonia, days of intubation, arterial partial oxygen tension (PaO2) : fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) ratio, atelectasis and antibiotic use were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) as predictors for reintubation. Using multiple regression (all independent variables in combination), none of the variables acted as predictors of reintubation (P = 0.25). Steroids were shown to have no effect alone or in association with other variables in altering reintubation rates. An increase in the days of intubation showed a tendency towards reintubation (P = 0.06) in the univariate analysis (odds ratio 1.00-1.14), but showed no statistically significant difference in multivariate analysis. Of the variables used as predictors of reintubation, none acted either as a preventive factor or as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that steroids should not be recommended at any stage in treatment of intubated patients with classic LTB. Prospective studies should evaluate the major risk factors for reintubation: duration of intubation, trauma to the airway at intubation and during ICU stay, and dose and timing of steroids. They should also evaluate whether upper airway disease is present alone or in association with lower airway disease. (+info)
Adult croup: a rare but more severe condition.
We report the first adult patient with virologically confirmed croup caused by parainfluenza virus type 3 and review 10 cases of adult croup described in the English-language literature. Circumstantial evidence of viral infection was present in only 1 other case, in which there was a rise in antibody titer against influenza B virus. Ten patients (91%) required intensive care support. None of the 11 patients died. A comparison was also made between the 11 adults with croup and 43 children hospitalized with severe croup described in a representative paper published in 1984. Adult croup represents an apparently more severe disease entity than pediatric croup. (+info)
Severe upper airway obstruction caused by ulcerative laryngitis.
AIMS: To present our experience of severe upper airway obstruction caused by ulcerative laryngitis in children. METHODS: Retrospective case note review of 263 children with severe upper airway obstruction and a clinical diagnosis of croup admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a five year period. RESULTS: A total of 148 children (56%) underwent microlaryngoscopy (Storz 3.0 rigid telescope). Laryngeal ulceration with oedema was documented in 15 of these children (10%), median age 14 months (range 10-36) and median weight 10 kg (range 6-12). Twenty seven of the children who underwent microlaryngoscopy (18%) also had ulcerative gingivostomatitis consistent with herpes simplex virus infection. Ulcerative laryngitis was documented in nine of 27 (33%) children with, and in six of 121 (5%) children without, coexistent ulcerative gingivostomatitis. One of the 15 children did not require airway intervention. Nine children required nasotracheal intubation for a median of 4 days (range 3-11) and median PICU stay of 6 days (range 4-14). Five children required tracheostomy ab initio, with a median PICU stay of 30 days (range 20-36), and duration of tracheostomy in situ for a median of 19 days (range 15-253). All 15 children survived. CONCLUSION: Ulcerative laryngitis is more common in our patient population than the few reports suggest. Early diagnostic microlaryngoscopy is recommended in children with severe croup who follow an atypical course. (+info)
Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Type of oral cortiosteroid in mild to moderate croup.
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether oral dexamethasone is better than oral prednisolone at improving outcome in children with mild to moderate croup. Altogether 139 papers were found using the reported search, of which none presented any evidence to answer the clinical question. It is concluded that there is no evidence available to answer this question. Further research is needed. (+info)
Viral croup is the most common form of airway obstruction in children six months to six years of age. The frightening nature of croup often prompts parents and caregivers to seek physician consultation. For children with mild croup, symptomatic care and mist therapy may be all that is necessary. Epinephrine has been used for decades to treat more severe cases of croup, but recent meta-analyses have found that glucocorticoid use is associated with shorter hospital stays, improvement in croup scores, and less use of epinephrine. Studies have shown that treatment with 0.6 mg per kg of oral dexamethasone is as effective as intramuscular dexamethasone or 2 mg of nebulized budesonide. Oral dexamethasone in dosages as low as 0.15 mg per kg also may be effective. While more studies are needed to establish guidelines, oral dexamethasone can be used to treat mild to moderate croup with close follow-up and instructions for further care, if needed. (+info)