Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA.
Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin. (+info)
The C-terminal region of hPrp8 interacts with the conserved GU dinucleotide at the 5' splice site.
A U5 snRNP protein, hPrp8, forms a UV-induced crosslink with the 5' splice site (5'SS) RNA within splicing complex B assembled in trans- as well as in cis-splicing reactions. Both yeast and human Prp8 interact with the 5'SS, branch site, polypyrimidine tract, and 3'SS during splicing. To begin to define functional domains in Prp8 we have mapped the site of the 5'SS crosslink within the hPrp8 protein. Immunoprecipitation analysis limited the site of crosslink to the C-terminal 5060-kDa segment of hPrp8. In addition, size comparison of the crosslink-containing peptides generated with different proteolytic reagents with the pattern of fragments predicted from the hPrp8 sequence allowed for mapping of the crosslink to a stretch of five amino acids in the C-terminal portion of hPrp8 (positions 1894-1898). The site of the 5'SS:hPrp8 crosslink falls within a segment spanning the previously defined polypyrimidine tract recognition domain in yPrp8, suggesting that an overlapping region of Prp8 may be involved both in the 5'SS and polypyrimidine tract recognition events. In the context of other known interactions of Prp8, these results suggest that this protein may participate in formation of the catalytic center of the spliceosome. (+info)
Arginine methylation and binding of Hrp1p to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation.
Hrp1p is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of mRNAs and mRNA export. In addition, Hrplp is one of several RNA-binding proteins that are posttranslationally modified by methylation at arginine residues. By using functional recombinant Hrp1p, we have identified RNA sequences with specific high affinity binding sites. These sites correspond to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation, UAUAUA. To examine the effect of methylation on specific RNA binding, purified recombinant arginine methyltransferase (Hmt1p) was used to methylate Hrp1p. Methylated Hrp1p binds with the same affinity to UAUAUA-containing RNAs as unmethylated Hrpl p indicating that methylation does not affect specific RNA binding. However, RNA itself inhibits the methylation of Hrp1p and this inhibition is enhanced by RNAs that specifically bind Hrpl p. Taken together, these data support a model in which protein methylation occurs prior to protein-RNA binding in the nucleus. (+info)
Photocrosslinking of 4-thio uracil-containing RNAs supports a side-by-side arrangement of domains 5 and 6 of a group II intron.
Previous studies suggested that domains 5 and 6 (D5 and D6) of group II introns act together in splicing and that the two helical structures probably do not interact by helix stacking. Here, we characterized the major Mg2+ ion- and salt-dependent, long-wave UV light-induced, intramolecular crosslinks formed in 4-thiouridine-containing D56 RNA from intron 5gamma (aI5gamma) of the COXI gene of yeast mtDNA. Four major crosslinks were mapped and found to result from covalent bonds between nucleotides separating D5 from D6 [called J(56)] and residues of D6 near and including the branch nucleotide. These findings are extended by results of similar experiments using 4-thioU containing D56 RNAs from a mutant allele of aI5gamma and from the group IIA intron, aI1. Trans-splicing experiments show that the crosslinked wild-type aI5gamma D56 RNAs are active for both splicing reactions, including some first-step branching. An RNA containing the 3-nt J(56) sequence and D6 of aI5gamma yields one main crosslink that is identical to the most minor of the crosslinks obtained with D56 RNA, but in this case in a cation-independent fashion. We conclude that the interaction between J(56) and D6 is influenced by charge repulsion between the D5 and D6 helix backbones and that high concentrations of cations allow the helices to approach closely under self-splicing conditions. The interaction between J(56) and D6 appears to be a significant factor establishing a side-by-side (i.e., not stacked) orientation of the helices of the two domains. (+info)
Hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes with disulfide bonds in sugar-phosphate backbone as potential DNA reagents for crosslinking with proteins.
Convenient approaches were described to incorporate -OP(=O)O(-)-SS-O(-)(O=)PO- bridges in hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes instead of regular phosphodiester linkages: (i) H2O2- or 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide-mediated coupling of 3'- and 5'-thiophosphorylated oligonucleotides on complementary template and (ii) more selective template-guided autoligation of a preactivated oligonucleotide derivative with an oligomer carrying a terminal thiophosphoryl group. Dithiothreitol was found to cleave completely modified internucleotide linkage releasing starting oligonucleotides. The presence of complementary template as an intrinsic element of the molecule protects the hairpin DNA analog from spontaneous exchange of disulfide-linked oligomer fragments and makes it a good candidate for auto-crosslinking with cysteine-containing proteins. (+info)
Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization. (+info)
The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood.
Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch. (+info)
A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association.
Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization. (+info)