(1/7520) Expression cloning for arsenite-resistance resulted in isolation of tumor-suppressor fau cDNA: possible involvement of the ubiquitin system in arsenic carcinogenesis.
Arsenic is a human carcinogen whose mechanism of action is unknown. Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that arsenite acts as a comutagen by interfering with DNA repair, although a specific DNA repair enzyme sensitive to arsenite has not been identified. A number of stable arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant sublines of Chinese hamster V79 cells have now been isolated. In order to gain understanding of possible targets for arsenite's action, one arsenite-resistant subline, As/R28A, was chosen as a donor for a cDNA expression library. The library from arsenite-induced As/R28A cells was transfected into arsenite-sensitive As/S5 cells, and transfectants were selected for arsenite-resistance. Two cDNAs, asr1 and asr2, which confer arsenite resistance to arsenite-hypersensitive As/S5 cells as well as to wild-type cells, were isolated. asr1 shows almost complete homology with the rat fau gene, a tumor suppressor gene which contains a ubiquitin-like region fused to S30 ribosomal protein. Arsenite was previously shown to inhibit ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor fau gene product or some other aspect of the ubiquitin system may be a target for arsenic toxicity and that disruption of the ubiquitin system may contribute to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenite. (+info)
(2/7520) Initiation of DNA replication at the Chinese hamster origin oriGNAI3 relies on local sequences and/or chromatin structures, but not on transcription of the nearby GNAI3 gene.
We recently identified a region of preferential replication initiation, oriGNAI3, near the 3' end of the Chinese hamster GNAI3 gene. oriGNAI3 is co-amplified in mutants selected for AMPD2 amplification, a process generating chromosomal rearrangements. In this report we have taken advantage of cell lines with truncated and translocated amplified units to show that these rearrangements do not alter the function of ori GNAI3. These results indicate that replication initiation at this locus relies essentially on local features. Interestingly, the study of one line in which a rearrangement has disrupted the GNAI3 gene shows that ongoing transcription of this gene is not required for initiation at oriGNAI3. In order to obtain further insight into the sequences and/or chromatin structures required for oriGNAI3 function, we have analyzed the DNase I sensitivity and nucleotide sequence of the region. The features important for replication initiation appear to cluster in a 7-12 kb region which includes oriGNAI3. (+info)
(3/7520) N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine a fluorescent probe for intracellular thiols and S-nitrosothiols.
The fluorescence emission spectrum of N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine was enhanced approximately 8-fold upon removal of the NO group either by photolysis or by transnitrosation with free thiols like glutathione. The fluorescence enhancement was reversible in that it could be quenched in the presence of excess S-nitrosoglutathione. Attempts were then made to utilize N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine as an intracellular probe of thiols/S-nitrosothiols. Fluorescence microscopy of fibroblasts in culture indicated that intracellular N-dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine levels reached a maximum within 5 min. N-Dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine fluorescence was directly proportional to intracellular GSH levels, directly determined with HPLC. N-Dansyl-S-nitrosohomocysteine preloaded cells were also sensitive to S-nitrosoglutathione uptake as the intracellular fluorescence decreased as a function of time upon exposure to extracellular S-nitrosoglutathione. (+info)
(4/7520) NHE2 contains subdomains in the COOH terminus for growth factor and protein kinase regulation.
The cloned epithelial cell-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 is stimulated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), okadaic acid (OA), and fetal bovine serum (FBS) through a change in maximal velocity of the transporter. In the present study, we used COOH-terminal truncation mutants to delineate specific domains in the COOH terminus of NHE2 that are responsible for growth factor and/or protein kinase regulation. Five truncation mutants (designated by the amino acid number at the truncation site) were stably expressed in NHE-deficient PS120 fibroblasts. The effects of PMA, FGF, OA, FBS, and W-13 [a Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor] were studied. Truncation mutant E2/660, but not E2/573, was stimulated by PMA. OA stimulated E2/573 but not E2/540. FGF stimulated E2/540 but not E2/499. The most truncated mutant, E2/499, was stimulated by FBS. W-13 stimulated the basal activity of the wild-type NHE2. However, W-13 had no effect on E2/755. By monitoring the emission spectra of dansylated CaM fluorescence, we showed that dansylated CaM bound directly to a purified fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase and the last 87 amino acids of NHE2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner, with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a dissociation constant of 300 nM. Our results showed that the COOH terminus of NHE2 is organized into separate stimulatory and inhibitory growth factor/protein kinase regulatory subdomains. This organization of growth factor/protein kinase regulatory subdomains is very similar to that of NHE3, suggesting that the tertiary structures of the putative COOH termini of NHE2 and NHE3 are very similar despite the minimal amino acid identity in this part of the two proteins. (+info)
(5/7520) The NDUFA1 gene product (MWFE protein) is essential for activity of complex I in mammalian mitochondria.
The MWFE polypeptide of mammalian complex I (the proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase) is 70 amino acids long, and it is predicted to be a membrane protein. The NDUFA1 gene encoding the MWFE polypeptide is located on the X chromosome. This polypeptide is 1 of approximately 28 "accessory proteins" identified in complex I, which is composed of 42 unlike subunits. It was considered accessory, because it is not one of the 14 polypeptides making up the core complex I; a homologous set of 14 polypeptides can make a fully functional proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase in prokaryotes. One MWFE mutant has been identified and isolated from a collection of respiration-deficient Chinese hamster cell mutants. The CCL16-B2 mutant has suffered a deletion that would produce a truncated and abnormal MWFE protein. In these mutant cells, complex I activity is reduced severely (<10%). Complementation with hamster NDUFA1 cDNA restored the rotenone-sensitive complex I activity of these mutant cells to approximately 100% of the parent cell activity. Thus, it is established that the MWFE polypeptide is absolutely essential for an active complex I in mammals. (+info)
(6/7520) The peroxin Pex14p. cDNA cloning by functional complementation on a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant, characterization, and functional analysis.
Rat cDNA encoding a 376-amino acid peroxin was isolated by functional complementation of a peroxisome-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant, ZP110, of complementation group 14 (CG14). The primary sequence showed 28 and 24% amino acid identity with the yeast Pex14p from Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively; therefore, we termed this cDNA rat PEX14 (RnPEX14). Human and Chinese hamster Pex14p showed 96 and 94% identity to rat Pex14p, except that both Pex14p comprised 377 amino acids. Pex14p was characterized as an integral membrane protein of peroxisomes, exposing its N- and C-terminal parts to the cytosol. Pex14p interacts with both Pex5p and Pex7p, the receptors for peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) and PTS2, respectively, together with the receptors' cargoes, PTS1 and PTS2 proteins. Mutation in PEX14 from ZP161, the same CG as ZP110, was determined by reverse transcription-PCR as follows. A 133-base pair deletion at nucleotide residues 37-169 in one allele created a termination codon at 40-42; in addition to this mutation, 103 base pairs were deleted at positions 385-487, resulting in the second termination immediately downstream the second deletion site in the other allele. Neither of these two mutant forms of Pex14p restored peroxisome biogenesis in ZP110 and ZP161, thereby demonstrating PEX14 to be responsible for peroxisome deficiency in CG14. (+info)
(7/7520) Characterization of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases involved in the glucuronidation of an antithrombotic thioxyloside in rat and humans.
To investigate the glucuronidation on the hydroxyl group of carbohydrate-containing drugs, the in vitro formation of glucuronides on the thioxyloside ring of the antithrombotic drug, LF 4.0212, was followed in rat and human liver microsomes and with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). The reaction revealed a marked regioselectivity in rat and humans. Human liver microsomes glucuronidated the compound mainly on the 2-hydroxyl position of the thioxyloside ring, whereas rat was able to form glucuronide on either the 2-, 3-, or 4- hydroxyl group of the molecule, although to a lower extent. LF 4.0212 was a much better substrate of human UGT than the rat enzyme (Vmax/Km 30.0 and 0.06 microl/min/mg, respectively). Phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, and clofibrate enhanced the glucuronidation of LF 4.0212 on positions 2, 3, and 4 of the thioxyloside ring, thus indicating that several UGT isoforms were involved in this process. The biosynthesis of the 2-O-glucuronide isomer was catalyzed by the human UGT1A9 and 2B4, but not by UGT1A6 and 2B11. By contrast, the rat liver recombinant UGT1A6 and 2B1 failed to form the 2-O-glucuronide isomers. From all the recombinant UGTs tested, none catalyzed the formation of the 3-O-glucuronide isomer. Interestingly, glucuronidation on the 4-position was found in all the metabolic competent V79 cell lines considered, including the nontransfected V79 cells, suggesting the presence of an endogenous UGT in fibroblasts able to actively glucuronidate the drug. This activity, which was nonsensitive to the inhibitory effect of 7,7,7-triphenylheptanoic acid, a potent UGT inhibitor, could reflect the existence of a different enzyme. (+info)
(8/7520) Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in glycosaminoglycan assembly and glucuronosyltransferase I.
The proteoglycans of animal cells typically contain one or more heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains. These glycosaminoglycans assemble on a tetrasaccharide primer, -GlcAbeta1, 3Galbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Xylbeta-O-, attached to specific serine residues in the core protein. Studies of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in the first or second enzymes of the pathway (xylosyltransferase and galactosyltransferase I) show that the assembly of the primer occurs by sequential transfer of single monosaccharide residues from the corresponding high energy nucleotide sugar donor to the non-reducing end of the growing chain. In order to study the other reactions involved in linkage tetrasaccharide assembly, we have devised a powerful selection method based on induced resistance to a mitotoxin composed of basic fibroblast growth factor-saporin. One class of mutants does not incorporate 35SO4 and [6-3H]GlcN into glycosaminoglycan chains. Incubation of these cells with naphthol-beta-D-xyloside (Xylbeta-O-Np) resulted in accumulation of linkage region intermediates containing 1 or 2 mol of galactose (Galbeta1, 4Xylbeta-O-Np and Galbeta1, 3Galbeta1, 4Xylbeta-O-Np) and sialic acid (Siaalpha2,3Galbeta1, 3Galbeta1, 4Xylbeta-O-Np) but not any GlcA-containing oligosaccharides. Extracts of the mutants completely lacked UDP-glucuronic acid:Galbeta1,3Gal-R glucuronosyltransferase (GlcAT-I) activity, as measured by the transfer of GlcA from UDP-GlcA to Galbeta1,3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol (<0.2 versus 3.6 pmol/min/mg). The mutation most likely lies in the structural gene encoding GlcAT-I since transfection of the mutant with a cDNA for GlcAT-I completely restored enzyme activity and glycosaminoglycan synthesis. These findings suggest that a single GlcAT effects the biosynthesis of common linkage region of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (+info)