Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. (9/47)

BACKGROUND: Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) leaves, flowers and berries are used by herbal practitioners in the UK to treat hypertension in conjunction with prescribed drugs. Small-scale human studies support this approach. AIM: To investigate the effects of hawthorn for hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed drugs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Reading, UK. METHOD: Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 79) were randomised to daily 1200 mg hawthorn extract (n = 39) or placebo (n = 40) for 16 weeks. At baseline and outcome a wellbeing questionnaire was completed and blood pressure and fasting blood samples taken. A food frequency questionnaire estimated nutrient intake. RESULTS: Hypotensive drugs were used by 71% of the study population with a mean intake of 4.4 hypoglycaemic and/or hypotensive drugs. Fat intake was lower and sugar intake higher than recommendations, and low micronutrient intake was prevalent. There was a significant group difference in mean diastolic blood pressure reductions (P = 0.035): the hawthorn group showed greater reductions (baseline: 85.6 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3 to 87.8; outcome: 83.0 mmHg, 95% CI = 80.5 to 85.7) than the placebo group (baseline: 84.5 mmHg, 95% CI = 82 to 87; outcome: 85.0 mmHg, 95% CI = 82.2 to 87.8). There was no group difference in systolic blood pressure reduction from baseline (3.6 and 0.8 mmHg for hawthorn and placebo groups, respectively; P = 0.329). Although mean fat intake met current recommendations, mean sugar intake was higher and there were indications of potential multiple micronutrient deficiencies. No herb-drug interaction was found and minor health complaints were reduced from baseline in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomised controlled trial to demonstrate a hypotensive effect of hawthorn in patients with diabetes taking medication.  (+info)

Polyphenolic content and physiological activities of Chinese hawthorn extracts. (10/47)

Hawthorn polyphenol (HP) was prepared by ethyl acetate treatment of the ethanol extract (HE) of Chinese hawthorn fruit. The concentrations of 15 polyphenols in the HP, HE, extraction residue (HJ), and a hawthorn leaf extract (HF) were determined by HPLC. For HP, the total content of the 15 polyphenols was 21.4%, comprised of 19.7% of procyanidins, 1.21% of chlorogenic acid, and 0.48% of flavonoids, compared to 2.55% for the HE. The yields of procyanidin monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer, and pentamer were 50.5%, 30.3%, 23.0%, 14.6%, and 12.5% respectively, and the mean degree of polymerization was reduced to 1.39 (HP) from 1.65 (HE). Seven different physiological actions of the four extracts were investigated. The HP showed strong O(2)(-) and (.-)OH scavenging capacities (IC(50) values of 6.3 microg/ml and 1.1 microg/ml respectively), as well as selective prolyl endopeptidase inhibition (IC(50) of 60 microg/ml). The active constituents appeared to be procyanidins.  (+info)

Radioprotective effects of hawthorn fruit extract against gamma irradiation in mouse bone marrow cells. (11/47)

The radioprotective effect of hawthorn (Crataegus microphylla) fruit extract against genotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation has been investigated in mouse bone marrow cells. A single intraperitoneal (ip) administration of hawthorn extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg 1h prior to gamma irradiation (2 Gy) reduced the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs). All four doses of hawthorn extract significantly reduced the frequencies of MnPCEs and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio (polychromatic erythrocyte/ polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte) in mice bone marrow compared with the non drug-treated irradiated control (p < 0.02-0.00001). The maximum reduction in MnPCEs was observed in mice treated with extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Administration of amifostine at dose 100 mg/kg and hawthorn at dose 200 mg/kg reduced the frequency of MnPCE almost 4.8 and 5.7 fold; respectively, after being exposed to 2 Gy of gamma rays, compare with the irradiated control group. Crataegus extract exhibited concentration-dependent activity on 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical showing that Crataegus contained high amounts of phenolic compounds and the HPLC analysis determined that it contained chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and hyperoside. It appeared that hawthorn extract with antioxidant activity reduced the genotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in bone marrow cells.  (+info)

The effect of Crataegus oxycantha Special Extract WS 1442 on clinical progression in patients with mild to moderate symptoms of heart failure. (12/47)

 (+info)

Free radical-scavenging activities of Crataegus monogyna extracts. (13/47)

The aim of this study was to investigate antiradical activity of aqueous and ethanolic hawthorn fruit extracts, their flavonoids, and flavonoid combinations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total amount of phenolic compounds and the constituents of flavonoids were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of Crataegus monogyna extracts and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, vitexin-2O-rhamnoside, epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidin B(2)) quantitatively was determined using the method of spectrophotometry (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) radical scavenging assay and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS.+) radical cation decolorization assay). The level of tyrosine nitration inhibition was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Ethanolic hawthorn fruit extract contained 182+/-4 mg/100 mL phenolic compounds, i.e. threefold more, as compared to aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity according to DPPH. reduction in the ethanolic extracts was higher 2.3 times (P<0.05). The ABTS.+ technique showed that the effect of ethanolic extracts was by 2.5 times stronger than that of aqueous extracts. Tyrosine nitration inhibition test showed that the effect of ethanolic extracts was by 1.4 times stronger than that of aqueous extracts. The investigation of the antiradical activity of the active constituents in aqueous and ethanolic extracts revealed that epicatechin and catechin contribute to radical-scavenging properties more than other components. Procyanidin B(2) only insignificantly influenced the antiradical activity of the extracts. CONCLUSION: Both aqueous and ethanolic hawthorn extracts had antiradical activity, but ethanolic extract had stronger free radical-scavenging properties, compared to the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity of the studied preparations was mostly conditioned by epicatechin and catechin. The individual constituents of both extracts had weaker free radical-scavenging properties than the combination of these substances did.  (+info)

Use of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of antioxidants in less common fruits. (14/47)

 (+info)

Crataegus orientalis associated multiorgan hypersensitivity reaction and acute renal failure. (15/47)

Patients, especially those with chronic disease and disorders are increasingly relying on complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAMT). Because the use of CAMT is escalating worldwide, it is essential to be aware of the clinical and adverse effects, doses and potential drug-herb interactions. Crataegus orientalis or hawthorn is a small tree with red fruits. A number of studies appear to demonstrate that Crataegus spp. have a clinically detectable positive cardiac inotropic action. The ingredients, characteristics of metabolism and elimination, and adverse effects of hawthorn remain largely unknown. We report a case of multisystem hypersensitivity reaction and progressive acute renal failure associated with the consumption of Crataegus orientalis.  (+info)

Biodiversity of the chemical constituents in the epiphytic lichenized ascomycete Ramalina lacera grown on difference substrates Crataegus sinaicus, Pinus halepensis, and Quercus calliprinos. (16/47)

AIM: The identification and evaluation of lichen metabolite production by the epiphytic lichenized ascomycete Ramalina lacera collected from different substrates: Crataegus sinaicus, Pinus halepensis, and Quercus calliprinos. METHODS: Chemical constituents were characterized by GC MS, HPLC, HR TLC, and other chemical methods. RESULTS: The most abundant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid but a considerable variability of the ester composition from one to another was found. A comparison of neutral lipids, glycolipids, polar lipids and fatty acid composition of the tree growing lichen Ramalina lacera was done. Diacylglyceryl N,N,N trimethylhomoserine, diaclyglycerylhydroxymethyl N,N,N trimethyl beta alanine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol were found as major components among polar lipids. Diffractaic, lecanoric, norstictic, protocetric, and usnic acids were isolated as major aromatic compounds in all samples of R. lacera. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated a diversity of fatty acids, lipids, and aromatic compounds produced by the samples of Ramalina lacera growing on different tree substrates, Crataegus sinaicus, Pinus halepensis and Quercus calliprinos.  (+info)